The “Simple” Steady Boiling Flow in a Pipe

  • Nikolay Ivanov KolevEmail author


Didactically, nuclear thermal hydraulics needs introductions at different levels of complexity by introducing step by step the new features after the previous ones have been clearly presented. The following two chapters serve this purpose. Chapter 3 describes mathematically the “simple” steady boiling flow in a pipe. The steady mass-, momentum-, and energy-conservation equations are solved at different levels of complexity by removing one after the other the simplifying assumptions. First the idea of mechanical and thermodynamic equilibrium is introduced. Then the assumption of mechanical equilibrium is relaxed. Then the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium is relaxed in addition. In all cases, comparisons with experimental data give the evidence of the level of adequacy of the different levels of modeling complexity. The engineering relaxation methods are considered, followed by the more sophisticated boundary layer treatment without and with variable effective bubble size. Then an introduction to the saturated- flow boiling heat transfer is given and the accuracy of the methods is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments. The hybrid method of combining the asymptotic method with boundary layer treatment allowing for variable effective bubble size is also presented. Finally, the idea of using the separated momentum equations and bubble dynamics is introduced and again its adequacy is demonstrated by comparison with experiments.


Heat Transfer Heat Flux Heat Transfer Coefficient Mass Flow Rate Void Fraction 
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ErlangenGermany

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