Advertisement

Melt-Coolant Interaction

  • Nikolay Ivanov Kolev

Abstract

After the Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents the attention of the nuclear plant designers has been drown to understand in dept the physical processes behind accidents leading to violent core degradation. One important class of such processes is the interaction of molten nuclear material with the coolant water. The phenomenon of pouring hot liquid into cold liquid can be associated with violent interaction especially if the temperature of the hotter liquid is much higher than the boiling temperature of the colder liquid. That is why in the cooking it is not recommended to pour hot oil into cold water. There is variety of interaction modes ranging from steady cooling of millions of particles in a cubic meter in the nickel production for instance, where molten nickel is first fragmented and then pored into large water pools trough the violent detonation - if aluminum dioxide is injected into water with high velocity. All this type of interaction is some times designated with melt-water interaction, melt-coolant interaction (MCI), steam explosion etc. Some geologists believe that one of the volcano explosion modes is caused by the mixing of lava with water after earthquake. In any case for real nuclear plants the melt-coolant interaction has to be quantitatively estimated in order to realize the damage potential of such interactions and in this light to judge the strength of the structures and then to design mitigation measures. Volumes 1, 2 and 3 of this monograph contain the basics haw such complex physical phenomena can be mathematically described. The subject of this Chapter is to give some guides for practical use of all these methods.

Keywords

Joint Research Steam Explosion Vapor Generation Reactor Pressure Vessel Safety Technology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Addabbo, C., Annunziato, A., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-24 quick-look report, Technical Note No.I.97.185, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (November 1997)Google Scholar
  2. Annunziato, A., Addabbo, C., Leva, G.: OECD/CSNI International standard problem No. 39 on FARO Test L-14, Reference specification, Technical Note No.I.96.64, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (April 1996a)Google Scholar
  3. Annunziato, A., Addabbo, C., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-20 quick-look report, Technical Note No.I.96.163, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (October 1996b)Google Scholar
  4. Annunziato, A., Addabbo, C., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-27 quick-look report, Technical Note No.I.98.252, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (December 1998a)Google Scholar
  5. Annunziato, A., Addabbo, C., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-31 quick-look report, Technical Note No.I.99.193, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (December 1998b)Google Scholar
  6. Annunziato, A., Addabbo, C., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-33 quick-look report, Technical Note No.I.00.111, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (September 2000)Google Scholar
  7. Benuzzi, A., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, Base case test quick-look report, Technical Note No.I.94.55, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (April 1994a)Google Scholar
  8. Benuzzi, A., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-14 test quick-look report, Technical Note No.I.94.171, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (December 1994b)Google Scholar
  9. Berman, B.: Light water reactor safety research program semi-annual report, SAND85-L500, Sandia National Laboratories (October 1983, March 1984)Google Scholar
  10. Dehn, M., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, Base case test data report, Technical Note No.I.94.147, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (1994)Google Scholar
  11. Hohmann, H., Field, M., Klein, K., Schins, H., Yerkess, A.: KROTOS 26 to KROTOS 30: Experimental data collection, Technical Note No.I.92.115, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (November 1992)Google Scholar
  12. Hohmann, H., Faraoni, R., Flied, M., Gambaretti, G., Klein, K.: KROTOS 32 to KROTOS 36: Data report, Technical Note No.I.95.128, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Programme, Joint Research Center, Ispra (August 1995)Google Scholar
  13. Huber, F., Keiser, A., Steinbrueck, M., Will, H.: PREMIX, Documentation of the results of experiments PM01 to PM06, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 5756 (March 1996)Google Scholar
  14. Huhtiniemi, I., Hohmann, H., Magallon, D., Flied, M., Gambaretti, G., Klein, K.: KROTOS CORIUM Tests 37, 45-48, 52-54: Data report, Technical Note No.I.97.177, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (November 1997)Google Scholar
  15. Huhtiniemi, I., Magallon, D., Flied, M., Gambaretti, G., Klein, K.: KROTOS 58 Test (KT-2), Technical Note No.I.97.177, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Programme, Joint Research Center, Ispra (November 1998)Google Scholar
  16. Huhtiniemi, I., Romor, A., Gambaretti, G., Nicol, G.: KROTOS KT-3 Data report, Technical Note No.I.99.198, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Programme, Joint Research Center, Ispra (December 1999)Google Scholar
  17. Keiser, A., Schuetz, W., Will, H.: PREMIX Tests PM12, PM13, and PM14 Documentation and evaluation of experimental data, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 6380 (November 1999)Google Scholar
  18. Keiser, A., Schuetz, W., Will, H.: PREMIX Experiments PM12-PM18 to investigate the mixing of a hot melt with water, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 6380 (July 2001)Google Scholar
  19. Kießler, F., Meseth, J.: Combination of I&C and passive pulse transmitters for redundant and diverse activation of safety function. In: 9th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, Nice, France, April 2–12 (2001)Google Scholar
  20. Kolev, N.I.: Gravitational flooding of hot solid horizontal surface by water. Kerntechnik 61, 67–76 (1996)Google Scholar
  21. Kolev, N.I.: Melt retention at metallic surfaces cooled from below by natural circulation nucleate boiling, KWU NA-M/96/E012a, Project EPR (March 22, 1996b)Google Scholar
  22. Kolev, N.I., Hofer, E.: Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of post experimental IVA4 simulations of melt water interaction. Experimental Thermal Fluid Science 13, 98–116 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kolev, N.I.: KARENA Severe accident control through in-vessel melt retention by external RPV cooling. In: 9th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, Nice, France, April 2–12 (2001)Google Scholar
  24. Kolev, N.I.: External cooling – the KARENA severe accident management strategy. In: Proceedings of ICONE-2012 04 Arlington VA, USA, Paper ICONE12-49055, April 25–29 (2004)Google Scholar
  25. Koshizuka, S., Ikeda, H., Oka, Y.: Effect on spontaneous nucleation on melt fragmentation in vapor explosions. In: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Vapor Explosions and Explosive Eruptions, Sendai, Japan, May 22–25, pp. 185–192 (1997)Google Scholar
  26. Krieg, T., Malmberg, T., Messemer, G., Stach, T., Stratmanns, E.: Slug impact loading on the vessel head during a postulated in-vessel steam explosion in pressurized water reactors. Nucl. Technol. 111, 369 (1995)Google Scholar
  27. Krieg, R.: Mechanical efficiency of the energy release during a steam explosion. Nucl. Technol. 117, 151–157 (February 1997)Google Scholar
  28. Krieg, R., Malmberg, T., Messemer, G., Hoffmann, G., Stach, T., Stratmanns, E.: Model experiments BERDA describing the impact of molten core material against a PWR vessel head. In: International Meeting on Advanced Reactor Safety (ARS 1997), Orlando, USA, June 1–5 (1997a)Google Scholar
  29. Krieg, R., Dolensky, B., Göller, B., Hailfinger, H., Hoffmann, G., Malmberg, T., Messemer, G., Ratajczak, W.: Schadenspotential von Dampfexplosion bei Kernschmelzeunfällen in Druckwasserreaktoren, Teil. B: Mechnaische Auswirkungen, Nachrichten-Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Jahrg 29(4/97), S.297–S.308 (1997b)Google Scholar
  30. Krieg, R., Messemer, G.: Reactor pressure vessel response to a postulated internal steam explosion – Investigation by model experiments. In: ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference, San Diego (1998)Google Scholar
  31. Magalon, D. (ed.): FARO LWR Program, Scooping test data report, Technical Note No.I.92.135, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (December 1992)Google Scholar
  32. Magalon, D., et al.: Characterization of molten-fuel coolant interaction processes (MFCI) Summary final report, European Commission 4th framework program nuclear fission safety, INV-MFCI(99)-P006, EUR 19566 EN Contract no: FI4S-CT96-0037 (2000a)Google Scholar
  33. Magalon D et al. (2000b) Characterization of molten-fuel coolant interaction processes (MFCI) Final report, European Commission 4th framework program nuclear fission safety, INV-MFCI(99)-P007, EUR 19567 EN Contract no: FI4S-CT96-0037 Google Scholar
  34. Meyer, L.: The interaction of falling mass of hot spheres with water. In: ANS Proceedings 1996 National Heat Transfer Conference, Houston, Tx., August, 3–6, vol. 9, pp. 105–114. American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, Illinois (1996)Google Scholar
  35. Meyer, L.: QUEOS a simulation-experiment of the premixing phase of steam explosion with hot spheres in water, Results of the Second Test Series, Internal Report 32.21.02/INR1962/PSF3267, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Karlsruhe (July 1997)Google Scholar
  36. Meyer, L.: QUEOS, an experimental investigation of premixing phase with hot spheres. Nucl. Eng. Des.18 (1998)Google Scholar
  37. Meyer, L., Kuhn, D.: The interaction of very hot particles falling into water. In: 2nd Int. Symp. on Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Experimentation Pisa, Italy, May 23–25 (1999)Google Scholar
  38. Pasler, C., von Staden, E.: The safety concept of the KARENA with active and passive safety systems. In: 9-th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, Nice, France, April 2–12 (2001)Google Scholar
  39. Sass, F., Bouché, C.H., Leiner, A.: Dubbels Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau, 12. Auflage, pp. S.332–S.405. Springer (1966)Google Scholar
  40. Schmaltz, H.: Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse für den KARENA, Zusammenfassende Darstellung, Arbeitsbericht KWU NDS4/98/036 (1998)Google Scholar
  41. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-27 data report, Technical Note No.I.99.194, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (December 1999a)Google Scholar
  42. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-28 data report, Technical Note No.I.99.76, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (April 1999b)Google Scholar
  43. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-29 data report, Technical Note No.I.99.186, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (1999c)Google Scholar
  44. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-31 data report, Technical Note No.I.99.100, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (July 1999d)Google Scholar
  45. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-19 data report, Technical Note No.I.00.53, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (April 2000a)Google Scholar
  46. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-20 data report, Technical Note No.I.00.53, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (July 2000b)Google Scholar
  47. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-24 data report, Technical Note No.I.00.93, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (July 2000c)Google Scholar
  48. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-32S data report, Technical Note No.I.00.127, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (November 2000d)Google Scholar
  49. Silverii, R., Magalon, D. (eds.): FARO LWR Program, L-33 data report, Technical Note No.I.00.124, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (October 2000e)Google Scholar
  50. Theofanous, T.G., et al.: Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads. In: Proceedings of OECD/CSNI Specialists Meeting on Fuel-Coolant Interactions (FCI), JAERI-Tokai Research Establishment, Japan, May 19–21 (1997)Google Scholar
  51. Wider, H.U. (ed.): FARO LWR Program, Quick look report on the scooping test, Technical Note No.I.92.139, Institute for Safety Technology, Reactor Safety Program, Joint Research Center, Ispra (December 1992)Google Scholar
  52. Yamano, N., Sugimoto, J., Moryama, Y., Soda, K.: Studies of fuel coolant interactions during core melt accident of nuclear power plants. In: NURETH-6th International Meeting on Thermal-Hydraulics, pp. 271–281 (1992)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations