Sexual harassment is a well-known social problem that affects people at work, school, military installations, and social gatherings (Barak 2005). A worldwide phenomenon (Barak 1997), it has been thoroughly investigated in recent decades in terms of prevalence, correlates, individual and organizational outcomes, and prevention; the range of studies provides an interdisciplinary perspective covering psychological, sociological, medical, legal, and educational aspects of the phenomenon. Although men face harassment, women are the most likely victims.
- Sexual Harassment
- Internet User
- Sexual Coercion
- Internet Service Provider
- Chat Room
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See Roberts and Mann (2011)
See The Center For Health And Gender Equity (1999)
See Internet Harassment, available at www.unc.edu, (visited 08/08/2011).
Arizona Criminal Code (1995): 13–2921.
Alaska Criminal Law Section 11.41.270.
Connecticut Penal Code Section 53a–183.
New York Penal Code § 240.30.
Oklahoma Code (1996): § 21–1173.
Wyoming Code, 6–2–506.
A “telecommunications system” is defined in Section 4(1) of the Telecommunications Act 1984 as “a system for the conveyance, through the agency of electric, magnetic, electro-magnetic, electro-chemical or electro-mechanical energy, of:
(a) Speech, music and other sounds.
(b) Visual images.
(c) Signals serving for the impartation…..of any matter otherwise than in the form of sounds or visual images…”.
The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, s.92 increased the maximum fine for an offence under section 43 to level 5 from level 3 and made it an imprisonable offence with a maximum term of 6 months. The new sentencing powers brings the penalty more into line with the maximum sentence for transmitting indecent or obscene material through the post (which is 12 months’ imprisonment) contrary to Section 11(2) of the Post Office Act 1953.
Also note that the Malicious Communications Act 1988s. 1 creates an offence of sending letters which convey, inter alia, threats with the purpose of causing distress or anxiety. The Act does not however cover telecommunications messages.
A person guilty of this offence is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months: s.2(2).
A person guilty of this offence is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years: s.4(4).
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Chawki, M., Darwish, A., Khan, M.A., Tyagi, S. (2015). Sexual Harassment in Cyberworld. In: Cybercrime, Digital Forensics and Jurisdiction. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 593. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15150-2_5
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