Building-Integration of High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems

Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


The chapter addresses building-integration (BI) issues from the basic concepts to the most specific concerns related to high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) systems. The reader is introduced to the topic by learning the main aspects of the true BI of PV systems. Although CPVs were developed to generate electricity at a decreased price compared with nonconcentrating systems, their BI can provide additional advantages related to a range of building energy needs and functions. Characteristic case studies of building-integrated concentrating systems are presented and discussed to show how different types of optical arrangements are designed to be architecturally integrated. BI HCPV systems require two-axis tracking arrangements, which poses a range of challenges in addition to those general for low-concentration or nonconcentrating BI solar systems. Two examples of truly BI HCPV, from the very few that can be found at present, are presented.


Building-integration Photovoltaics, solar concentration HCPV 


  1. 1.
    EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive) (2002) Official Journal of the European Communities, Directive 2002/91/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council.
  2. 2.
    Swanson RM (2000) The promise of concentrators. Prog Photovolt Res Appl 8:93Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reijenga TH (2003) Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering. In: Luque A, Hegedus S (eds). Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Munari Probst MC, Roecker C (2007) Towards an improved architectural quality of building integrated solar thermal systems (BIST). Sol Energy 81:1104Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Munari Probst MC et al (2005) Architectural integration of solar thermal collectors: results of a European survey. In: Proceedings of ISES solar world congress, Orlando, 8–12 Aug 2005Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reijenga TH, Kaan HF (2011) Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering. In: Luque A, Hegedus S (eds). Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zacharopoulos A, Eames PC, McLarnon D, Norton B (2000) Linear dielectric non-imaging concentrating covers for PV integrated building facades. Sol Energy 68:439Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mallick TK, Eames PC (2007) Power losses in an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cell 91:597Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Griffiths PW, di Leo M, Cartwright P, Eames PC, Yianoulis P, Leftheriotis G, Norton B (1998) Fabrication of evacuated glazing at low temperature. Sol Energy 63:243Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Papaefthimiou S, Leftheriotis G, Yianoulis P, Hyde TJ, Eames PC, Fang Y, Pennarun PY, Jannasch P (2006) Development of electrochromic evacuated advanced glazing. Energy Build 38:1455Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zacharopoulos A, Mondol JD, Hyde TJ, Smyth M (2011) Publication Number WO2011101682, International Patent Application No. PCT/GB2011/050327, 25 Aug 2011Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eames PC, Norton B, Griffiths PW, Hyde TJ (2000) International Patent Application No. PCT/GB2000/001495, Publication number WO2000063130, 26 Oct 2000Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fieber A et al (2003) Design, Building integration and performance of a hybrid solar wall element. In: Proceedings of ISES solar world congress, Gothenburg, 14–19 June, 2003Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fieber A (2004) PV performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window. In: Proceedings of 19th european photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition, Paris, 7–11 June 2004Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Davidsson H, Perers B, Karlsson B (2012) System analysis of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window. Sol Energy 86:903Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gajbert H, Hall M, Karlsson B (2007) Optimization of reflector and module geometries for stationary, low-concentrating, façade-integrated photovoltaic systems. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cell 91:1788Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chemisana D, Ibáñez M, Rosell JI (2011) Characterization of a photovoltaic-thermal module for fresnel linear concentrator. Energy Convers Manag 52:3234Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chemisana D, Ibáñez M, Barrau J (2009) Comparison of Fresnel concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics. Energy Convers Manag 50:1079Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baig H, Sellami N, Mallick TK (2015) Sol Energy Mater Sol Cell 134:29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chemisana D, López-Villada J, Coronas A, Rosell JI, Lodi C (2013) Building integration of concentrating systems for solar cooling applications. Appl Therm Eng 50:1472Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Parkyn WA et al (2004) Edge-ray design of compact etendue-limited folded-optic collimators. In: Proceedings of SPIE, vol 5185, p 6Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Myrskog S et al (2012) Experimental results of Morgan Solar Inc.’s HCPV Sun Simba. In: Proceedings of 8th international conference on concentrating photovoltaic systems, Toledo, 16–18 Apr 2012Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morgansolar Sun Simba specifications. Accessed Sept 2014
  24. 24.
    Gordon JM, Feuermann D (2005) Optical performance at the thermodynamic limit with tailored imaging designs. Appl Opt 44:2327Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Winston R, Gordon JM (2005) Planar concentrators near the etendue limit. Opt Lett 30:2617Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mcdonald M, Barnes C (2008) Spectral optimization of CPV for integrated energy output. In: Proceedings of SPIE, conference: optical modeling and measurements for solar energy systems II. San Diego, 13–14 Aug 2008Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maghanga CM, Niklasson GA, Granqvist CG, Mwamburi M (2011) Spectrally selective reflector surfaces for heat reduction in concentrator solar cells: Modeling and applications of TiO2:Nb-based thin films. Appl Opt 50:3296Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu Y, Hu P, Zhang Q, Chen Z (2014) Thermodynamic and optical analysis for a CPV/T hybrid system with beam splitter and fully tracked linear Fresnel reflector concentrator utilizing sloped panels. Sol Energy 103:191Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ulavi TU, Davidson JH, Hebrink T (2014) Analysis of a hybrid PV/T concept based on wavelength selective mirror films. J Sol Energy Eng Trans ASME 136:1Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dyson A et al (2007). Integrated concentrating (IC) Solar façade system. In DOE solar energy technologies program review meeting, Colorado, 17–19 Apr 2007Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sabry M, Eames PC, Singh H, Yupeng W (2014) Smart windows: thermal modelling and evaluation. Sol Energy 103:200Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rawlemon (2014) Accessed Sept 2014

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Physics Section of the Environmental Science Department, Polytechnic SchoolUniversity of LleidaLleidaSpain
  2. 2.Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built EnvironmentUlster UniversityNewtownabbey, Co. AntrimUK

Personalised recommendations