Building Resilient Cities to Climate Change

  • Matheos Santamouris
  • Constantinos CartalisEmail author
Part of the Springer Optimization and Its Applications book series (SOIA, volume 102)


Several publications have been made regarding the state of the environment in cities, especially in light of new challenges such as climate change [1–6]. In particular the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) speaks about the urgent need to build resilient cities to natural hazards and prioritizes the development of resilience plans by local authorities, especially with respect to climate change and the associated impacts to local societies [3]. In the same wavelength, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) [5] refers to the increasing burden to local societies due to climate change and claims that the occurrence of extreme weather events, with the potential to affect cities, has not only increased since its latest assessment [4], but is also estimated to further increase in the following years. IPCC [5] also refers to the impacts of climate change to cities, mostly in terms of the increase of temperature, as well as of the occurrence of tropical days and heat waves. The European Environment Agency (EEA) in its publication on the impacts of climate change [6] also refers to the impact of climate change in the European continent and combines the increase of heat waves in Europe and the spatial and temporal enhancement of thermal heat islands in several European cities, to the urbanization trend in Europe (80 % of the population is expected to live in cities by 2020), and to the vulnerability of the population, especially elderly people.


Climate change Cities Resilience 


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.: In: Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K., Reisinger, A. (eds.) Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, p. 104. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.: Climate Change 2013 The Physical Science Basis, Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    European Environment Agency.: Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerability in Europe 2012 an Indicator-Based Report, Report No 12/2012, p. 300 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, M.L., Grove, J.M.: Resilient cities: meaning, models, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic and planning realms. Landsc. Urban Plann. 69, 369–384 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cartalis, C.: Towards resilient cities – a review of definitions, challenges and prospects, advances in building energy research. (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    OECD: Environmentally Sustainable Buildings: Challenges and Policies. OECD, Paris (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berkowitz, A.R., Nilon, C.H., Hollweg, K.S. (eds.): A New Frontier for Science and Education. Springer, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    European Commission: An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change. COM 216, 11 (2013). FinalGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    European Environment Agency.: Adaptation in Europe – Addressing Risks and Opportunities from Climate Change in the Context of Socio-Economic Developments, Report No 3/2013, p. 136, (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tyler, S., Reed, S., Maclune, K., Chopde, S.: Planning for urban climate resilience: framework and examples from the Asian cities climate change resilience network, Boulder, ISET Working Paper, p. 68, (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baccini, M., Biggeri, A., Accetta, G., Kosatsky, T., Katsouyanni, K., Analitis, A., Anderson, H.R., Bisanti, L., D’Ippoliti, D., Danova, J.: Heat effects on mortality in 15 European cities. Epidemiology 19, 711–719 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Confalonieri, U., Menne, B., Akhtar, R., Ebi, K.L., Hauengue, M., Kovats, R.S., Revich, B., Woodward, A.: Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J., Hanson, C.E. (eds.) Human Health. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, pp. 391–431. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Laurent, F., Cassadou, S., Médina, S., Fabres, P., Lefranc, A., Eilstein, D., Le Tertre, A., Pacsal, L., Chardon, B., Blanchard, M., Declercq, C., Jusot, J.F., Prouvost, H., Ledran, M.: The relation between temperature, ozone, and mortality in nine French cities during the heat wave of 2003. Environ. Health Perspect. 114(9), 1344–1347 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hemon, D., Jugla, E.: The heat wave in France in August 2003. Rev. Epidemiol. Sante Publique 52(1), 3–5 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Santamouris, M., Argiroudis, K., Georgiou, M., Livada, I., Doukas, P., Assimakopoulos, M.N., Sfakianaki, A., Pavlou, K., Geros, V., Papaglastra, M.: Indoor air quality in fifty residences in Athens. Int. J. Vent. 5(4), 367–380 (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Henstra, D., Kovacs, P., McBean, G., Sweeting, R.: Background Paper on Disaster Resilient Cities. Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, Toronto/London, ON (2004). Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Santamouris, M. (ed.): Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment. James and James Science Publishers, London (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mihalakakou, G., Santamouris, M., Papanikolaou, N., Cartalis, C., Τsagrassoulis, A.: Simulation of the urban heat island phenomenon in Mediterranean climates. J. Pure Appl. Geophys. 161, 429–451 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stathopoulou, M., Synnefa, A., Cartalis, C., Santamouris, M., Karlessi, T., Akbari, H.: A surface heat island study of Athens using high resolution satellite imagery and measurements of the optical and thermal properties of commonly used building and paving materials. Int. J. Sustain. Energ. 28, 59–76 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lo, C.P., Quattrochi, D.A.: Land-use and land cover change, urban heat island phenomenon, and health implications: a remote sensing approach. Photogramm. Eng. Rem. Sens. 69, 1053–1063 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Statophoulou, M., Cartalis, C., Keramitsoglou, I.: Thermal Remote Sensing of Thom’s Discomfort Index (DI): Comparison with In Situ Measurements. SPIE Symposium, Brugges (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stathopoulou, M., Cartalis, C., Chrysoulakis, N.: Using midday surface temperature to estimate cooling degree-days from NOAA-AVHRR thermal infrared data: an application for Athens, Greece. Sol. Energ. 80, 414–422 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Polydoros, A., Cartalis, C.: Assessing thermal risk in urban areas – an application for the urban agglomeration of Athens. Adv. Build. Energ. Res. (2014)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Santamouris, M., Kolokotsa, D.: On the impact of urban overheating and extreme climatic conditions on housing energy comfort and environmental quality of vulnerable population in Europe. Energ. Build. In Press (2014)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sakka, A., Santamouris, M., Livada, I., Nicols, F., Wilson, M.: On the thermal performance of low income housing during heat waves. Energ. Build. 49, 69–77 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Santamouris, M., Paraponiaris, K., Mihalakakou, G.: Estimating the ecological footprint of the heat island effect over Athens. Greece Clim. Change 80, 265–276 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Santamouris, M., Cartalis, C., Synnefa, A., Kolokotsa, D.: On the impact of urban heat island and global warming on the power demand and electricity consumption of buildings – a review. Energ. Build. In Press (2015)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Santamouris, M.: On the energy impact of urban overheating on buildings. Energ. Build. 82, 100–113 (2014)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hallegate, S., Henriet, F., Corfee-Morlot, J.: The economics of climate change impacts and policy benefits at city scale: a conceptual framework, Environment Working Paper, No. 4, OECD, Paris (2008)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    OECD.: Cities, climate change and multilevel governance, Environmental Working Papers, OECD, Paris (2009)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Santamouris, M., Adnot, G. (eds.): Cooling the Cities, Editions des Ecoles des Mines, Paris. Distributed by Eyrolles, France (2004)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Santamouris, M., Synnefa, A., Kolokotsa, D., Dimitriou, V., Apostolakis, K.: Passive cooling of the built environment – use of innovative reflective materials to fight heat island and decrease cooling needs. Int. J. Low Carbon Tech. 3(2), 71–82 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Santamouris, M., Synnefa, A., Karlessi, T.: Using advanced cool materials in the urban built environment to mitigate heat islands and improve thermal comfort conditions. Sol. Energ. 85, 3085–3102 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Synnefa, A., Santamouris, M., Livada, I.: A study of the thermal performance of reflective coatings for the urban environment. Sol. Energ. 80(8), 968–981 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Synnefa, A., Santamouris, M., Apostolaki, K.: On the development, optical properties and thermal performance of cool colored coatings for the urban environment. Sol. Energ. 81, 488–497 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kolokosta, D., Santamouris, M., Zerefos, S.C.: Green and cool roofs’ urban heat island mitigation potential in European climates for office buildings under free floating conditions. Sol. Energ. 95, 118–130 (2013)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Karlessi, T., Santamouris, M., Apostolakis, K., Synnefa, A., Livada, I.: Development and testing of thermochromic coatings for buildings and urban structures. Sol. Energ. 83(4), 538–551 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Karlessi, T., Santamouris, M., Synnefa, A., Assimakopoulos, D., Didaskalopoulos, P., Apostolakis, K.: Development and testing of PCM doped cool colored coatings to mitigate urban heat island and cool buildings. Build. Environ. 46(3), 570–576 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Santamouris, M.: Using cool pavements as a mitigation strategy to fight urban heat island — a review of the actual developments. Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 26, 224–240 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Santamouris, M., Gaitani, N., Spanou, A., Saliari, M., Gianopoulou, K., Vasilakopoulou, K.: Using cool paving materials to improve microclimate of urban areas – design realisation and results of the Flisvos project. Build. Environ. 53, 128–136 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Santamouris, M.: Cooling the cities – a review of reflective and green roof mitigation technologies to fight heat island and improve comfort in urban environments. Sol. Energ. 103, 682–703 (2014)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sfakianaki, E., Pagalou, E., Pavlou, K., Santamouris, M., Assimakopoulos, M.N.: Theoretical and experimental analysis of the thermal behaviour of a green roof system installed in two residential buildings in Athens, Greece. Int. J. Energ. Res. 33(12), 1059–1069 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Skoulika, F., Santamouris, M., Boemi, N., Kolokotsa, D.: On the thermal characteristics and the mitigation potential of a medium size urban park in Athens, Greece. Landsc. Urban Plann. 123, 73–86 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Santamouris, M., Kolokotsa, D.: Passive cooling dissipation techniques for buildings and other structures: the state of the art review article. Energ. Build. 57, 74–94 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fintikakis, N., Gaitani, N., Santamouris, M., Assimakopoulos, M., Assimakopoulos, D.N., Fintikaki, M., Albanis, G., Papadimitriou, K., Chryssochoides, E., Katopodi, K., Doumas, P.: Bioclimatic design of open public spaces in the historic centre of Tirana, Albania Original Research Article. Sustain. Cities Soc. 1(1), 54–62 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chrysoulakis, N., Mitraka, Z., Stathopoulou, M., Cartalis, C.: A comparative analysis of the urban web of the greater Athens agglomeration for the last 20 years period on the basis of Landsat imagery. Fresen. Environ. Bull. 22, 2139–2144 (2013)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kamal-Chaoui, L., Alexis, R. (eds.): Competitive Cities and Climate Change, OECD Regional Development Working Papers No 2, 2009, OECD Publishing (2009)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    IEA.: World Energy Outlook 2009, OECD/IEA, Paris (2009)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grazi, F., van den Bergh, J., van Ommeren, J.: An empirical analysis of urban form, transport and global warming. Energ. J. 29(4), 97–122 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ruth, M., Coelho, D.: Understanding and managing the complexity of urban systems under climate change. Clim. Pol. 7, 317–336 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Council of Europe.: European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter (1983)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Churchmann, A.: Disentangling the concept of density. J. Plan. Lit. 13(4), 389–411 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tyler, S., Reed, S., Maclune, K., Chopde, S.: Planning for urban climate resilience: framework and examples from the Asian cities climate change resilience network, Boulder, ISET Working Paper, p. 68 (2010)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Godschalk D.R.: Urban hazard mitigation: creating resilient cities. Plenary paper presented at the Urban Hazards Forum, John Jay College, City University of New York (2002). Accessed 22–24 Jan 2002
  58. 58.
    Santamouris, M., Paravantis, J.A., Founda, D., Kolokotsa, P., Michalakakou, A.M., Papadopoulos, N., Kontoulis, A., Tzavali, E., Stigka, K., Ioannidis, Z., Mexil, P., Matthiessen, A., Servou, E.: Financial crisis and energy consumption: a household survey in Greece. Energ. Build. 65, 477–487 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    United Nations.: Cities and Climate Change: Policy Directions, Global Report on Human Settlements, United Nations Human Settlements Program, Earthscan, London (2011)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stathopoulou, M., Iacovides S., Cartalis, C.: Quality of life in Metropolitan Athens. Using satellite and census data – comparison between 1991 and 2001. J. Heat Island Inst. Int. (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics DepartmentNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Physics and MeteorologyNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations