Placing Green Roofs in Time and Space: Scale, Recruitment, Establishment, and Regeneration

  • Katherine DunsterEmail author
  • Reid R. Coffman
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 223)


The preceding chapters have followed an interconnected path through the fields of green roof research to converge in this chapter on some emerging principles for the design of green roof ecosystems that extend beyond the garden aesthetic. Understanding green roof ecosystems in time and space becomes critical to good ecological design and the desire to protect and improve biodiversity in all its forms.

Scale plays a central role in ecology, providing context to understanding patterns across the space-time continuum within the local, regional, and global landscape. Review of green roof projects and research literature indicates that beyond local concern to create authentic habitat, green roof design and research has paid scarce attention to scalar relationships. As we explain in this chapter, paying attention to scale has implications for the ecological relevance of a green roof project at both socio-political and biological levels. Contextualizing how a roof will fit into time and space establishes its place on the planet and its ecological role in the landscape. Scale also plays a role in the recruitment, establishment, and regeneration of species on a roof, that in turn sets the management path towards design success and long-term survival of the roof ecosystems created.


Scale Biodiversity Recruitment Source-Sink Disturbance Regeneration Management 


  1. Addicott JF, Aho JM, Antolin MF, Padilla DK, Richardson JS, Soluk DA (1987) Ecological neighbourhoods: scaling environmental patterns. Oikos 49(3):340–346Google Scholar
  2. Ahlgren CE, Ahlgren IF (1981) Some effects of different forest litters on seed germination and growth. Can J For Res 11(3):710–714Google Scholar
  3. Akçakaya HR, Mills G, Doncaster CP (2007) The role of metapopulations in conservation. In: Macdonald D, Service K (eds) Key topics in conservation biology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 64–84Google Scholar
  4. Ansel W, Appl R (2012) Green roof policies—an international review of current practices and future trends. International Green Roof Association (IGRA), Nürtingen, Germany. Accessed 30 April 2014
  5. Antolin MF, Addicott JF (1991) Colonization, among shoot movement, and local population neighbourhoods of two aphid species. Oikos 61:45–53Google Scholar
  6. Baskin CC, Baskin JM (1998) Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumann N (2014) Ground-nesting birds on green roofs in Switzerland: preliminary observations. Urban Habitats 4(1):37–50. Accessed 26 July 2014Google Scholar
  8. Beatty SW (1984) Influence of microtopography and canopy species on spatial patterns of forest understory plants. Ecology 65(5):1406–1419Google Scholar
  9. Benvenuti S, Bacci D (2010) Initial agronomic performances of Mediterranean xerophytes in simulated dry green roofs. Urban Ecosyst 13(3):349–363. Accessed 13 March 2014Google Scholar
  10. Berardi U, GhaffarianHoseini AH, GhaffarianHoseini A (2014) State-of-the-art analysis of the environmental benefits of green roofs. Appl Energy 115:411–428. Accessed 15 April 2014Google Scholar
  11. Bianchelli S, Gambi C, Mea M, Pusceddu A, Danovaro, R (2013) Nematode diversity patterns at different spatial scales in bathyal sediments of the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeosciences 10(8):5465–5479Google Scholar
  12. Blank L, Vasl A, Levy S, Grant G, Kadas G, Dafni A, Blaustein L (2013) Directions in green roof research: a bibliometric study. Build Environ 66:23–28Google Scholar
  13. Bonte D, Van Dyck H, Bullock JM, Coulon A, Delgado M et al (2012) Costs of dispersal. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 87(2):290–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brenneisen S (ed) (2005) The natural roof (NADA)—Research project report of the use of extensive green roofs by wild bees. University of Wädenswil, Wädenswil, Switzerland, 21 p. (English Translation by H. Waldbaum, D. Gedge (ed))Google Scholar
  15. Brown JH, Valone TJ, Curtin CG (1997) Reorganization of an arid ecosystem in response to recent climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(18):9729–9733PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bruno JF, Stachowicz JJ, Bertness MD (2003) Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends Ecol Evol 18(3):119–125Google Scholar
  17. Cadenasso ML, Pickett ST, Weathers KC, Jones CG (2003) A framework for a theory of ecological boundaries. BioScience 53(8):750–758Google Scholar
  18. Caneva G, Kumbaric A, Savo V, Casalini R (2013) Ecological approach in selecting extensive green roof plants: a data-set of mediterranean plants. Plant Biosyst 2013. Accessed 15 May 2014
  19. Cantor SL (2008) Green roofs in sustainable landscape design. WW Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Chase JM, Leibold MA (2003) Ecological niches: linking classical and contemporary approaches. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  21. City of Melbourne (2013) Green roofs, walls & facades policy options background paper. Draft for consultation, June 2013. Growing Green Guide for Melbourne Project, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  22. City of Sydney (2014a) Green roofs & walls policy, 7 April 2014. Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  23. City of Sydney (2014b) Green roofs & walls policy implementation plan, March 2014. Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  24. City of Toronto (2013a) Toronto municipal code, Chap. 492, green roofs. Toronto, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  25. City of Toronto (2013b) Green roof construction standard supplementary guidelines. Office of the Chief Building Official, Toronto Building, Toronto, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  26. Coffman RR, Davis G (2005) Insect and avian fauna presence on the Ford assembly plant ecoroof. In: Proceedings of 3rd North American Green Roof Conference: greening rooftops for sustainable communities, 4–6 May 2005, Washington DC, pp 457–468. The Cardinal Group, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  27. Collins SL (1987) Interaction of disturbances in tallgrass prairie: a field experiment. Ecology 68(5):1243–1250Google Scholar
  28. Connolly J, Wayne P, Murray R (1990) Time course of plant-plant interactions in experimental mixtures of annuals: density, frequency and nutrient effects. Oecologia 82(4):513–526Google Scholar
  29. Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) United Nations, New York. Accessed 13 March 2014
  30. Council of Europe (2000) European landscape convention and reference documents. Council of Europe Cultural Heritage, Landscape and Spatial Planning Division, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  31. Daubenmire R (1968) Ecology of fire in grasslands. Adv Ecol Res 5:209–266Google Scholar
  32. Davies R (2010) Elevated enclaves: biodiversity enhancement for living roofs—a collaborative research project. Waitakere, NZ: Waitakere City Council and Unitec, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  33. Davies RB, Simcock R, Ussher G, Boult M (2010) Elevated enclaves living roof biodiversity enhancement through prosthetic habitats. In: Proceedings of cities alive, 8th Annual Green Roof & Wall Conference, Vancouver, 30 November–December 3, 2010. The Cardinal Group, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  34. Del Tredici P (2004) Neocreationism and the illusion of ecological restoration. Harv Des Mag 20:1–3Google Scholar
  35. Delcourt HR, Delcourt PA (1988) Quaternary landscape ecology: relevant scales in space and time. Landsc Ecol 2(1):23–44Google Scholar
  36. Delcourt HR, Delcourt PA, Webb T III (1983) Dynamic plant ecology: the spectrum of vegetational change in space and time. Quat Sci Rev 1(2):153–175Google Scholar
  37. Design for London (2008) Living roofs and walls technical report: supporting London plan policy. Greater London Authority, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Dias PC (1996) Sources and sinks in population biology. Trends Ecol Evol 11(8):326–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Duncan A, Duncan R, Rae R, Rebecca G, Stewart B (2001) Roof and ground nesting Eurasian oystercatchers in Aberdeen. J Scott Ornithol Club 22:1–8Google Scholar
  40. Dunnett N, Gedge D, Little J, Snodgrass EC (2011) Small green roofs: low-tech options for greener living. Timber Press, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  41. Dunster K (2007) The Garry oak gardener’s handbook. Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and Parks Canada Agency, Victoria, BCGoogle Scholar
  42. Dunster K (2010) Improving biodiversity values on green roofs in BC: some best practices. In: Proceedings of Cities Alive, 8th Annual Green Roof & Wall Conference, Vancouver, 30 November–December 3, 2010. The Cardinal Group, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  43. Dvorak BD, Volder A (2013) Plant establishment on unirrigated green roof modules in a subtropical climate. AoB Plants 5: pls049 first published online December 20, 2012. Accessed 17 May 2014
  44. Edwards GR, Crawley MJ (1999) Herbivores, seed bank and seedling recruitment in mesic grassland. J Ecol 87(3):423–435Google Scholar
  45. Ellis EC (2013) Sustaining biodiversity and people in the world’s anthropogenic biomes. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5:368–372Google Scholar
  46. Ellis EC, Ramankutty N (2008) Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world. Front Ecol Environ 6(8):439–447Google Scholar
  47. English Nature (2003) Green roofs: their existing status and potential for conserving biodiversity in urban areas. English Nature Report no. 498. English Nature, Peterborough, UKGoogle Scholar
  48. Eriksson O, Eriksson A (1997) Seedling recruitment in semi-natural pastures: the effects of disturbance, seed size, phenology and seed bank. Nordic J Bot 17(5):469–482Google Scholar
  49. Fazey I, Fischer J, Lindenmayer JB (2005) What do conservation biologists publish? Biol Conserv 124(1):63–73Google Scholar
  50. Fenner M, Thompson K (2005) The ecology of seeds. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Fernandez-Canero R, Gonzalez-Redondo P (2010) Green roofs as a babitat for birds: a review. J Anim Vet Adv 9(15):2041–2052Google Scholar
  52. Fisher RA, Corbet AS, Williams CB (1943) The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J Anim Ecol 12(1):42–58Google Scholar
  53. FLL (2008) Green Roofing Guidelines: 2008 Guidelines for the planning, construction and maintenance of green roofing. FLL (Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau e. V.)Google Scholar
  54. Foster DR, Knight DH, Franklin JF (1998) Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large, infrequent forest disturbances. Ecosystems 1:497–510Google Scholar
  55. Fowler NL (1988) What is a safe site?: neighbor, litter, germination date, and patch effects. Ecology 69(4):947–961Google Scholar
  56. Gedge D, Kadas G (2005) Green roofs and biodiversity. Biologist 52(3):161–169Google Scholar
  57. Gilroy JJ, Sutherland WJ (2007) Beyond ecological traps: perceptual errors and undervalued resources. Trends Ecol Evol 22(7):351–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Godfree RC, Lepschi BJ, Carnegie MD (2010) The impact of extreme drought and climate change on the demography of plains grass populations in central New South Wales. In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of The Grassland Society of NSW, pp 75–79. Accessed 22 May 2014
  59. Grant G (2006) Extensive green roofs in London. Urban Habitats 4(1):51–65Google Scholar
  60. Hallett LM, Standish RJ, Hulvey KB, Gardener MA, Suding KN, Starzomski BM, Murphy SM, Harris JA (2013) Toward a conceptual framework for novel ecosystems. In: Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Hall CA (eds) Novel ecosystems: when and how do we intervene in the new ecological world order? Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 16–28Google Scholar
  61. Hanski I (1999) Metapopulation ecology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  62. Hanski I, Ovaskainen O (2000) The metapopulation capacity of a fragmented landscape. Nature 404(6779):755–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Harper JL (1977) Population biology of plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  64. Hartnett DC, Wilson GWT (2002) The role of mycorrhizas in plant community structure and dynamics: lessons from grasslands. Plant Soil 244(1–2):319–331Google Scholar
  65. Higgs E (2012) Changing nature: novel ecosystems, intervention, and knowing when to step back. In: Weinstein MP, Turner RE (eds) Sustainability science: the emerging paradigm and the urban environment. Springer, New York, pp 383–398Google Scholar
  66. Hilderbrand RH, Watts AC, April M, Randle AM (2005) The myths of restoration ecology. Ecol Soc 10(1):19. Accessed 14 May 2014Google Scholar
  67. Hobbs RJ, Arico S, Aronson J, Baron JS et al (2006) Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Global Ecol Biogeogr 15(1):1–7Google Scholar
  68. Hobbs RJ, Higgs ES, Hall CM (eds) (2013) Novel ecosystems: intervening in the new ecological world order. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  69. IUCN-UNEP-WWF (1980) World Conservation Strategy. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF)Google Scholar
  70. Janzen D (1998) Gardenification of wildland nature and the human footprint. Science 279(5355):1312–1313Google Scholar
  71. Joern A (2005) Disturbance by fire frequency and bison grazing modulate grasshopper assemblages in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 86(4) 861–873Google Scholar
  72. Jones RA (2002) Tecticolous invertebrates: a preliminary investigation of the invertebrate fauna on green roofs in urban London. English Nature, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  73. Kadas G (2006) Rare invertebrates colonising green roofs in London. Urban Habitats 4(1):66–8Google Scholar
  74. Kaplan R, Kaplan S (1989) The experience of nature: a psychological perspective. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  75. Kareiva P, Andersen M (1988) Spatial aspects of species interactions. In: Hastings A (ed) Community ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 35–50Google Scholar
  76. Kareiva P, Wennergren U (1995) Connecting landscape patterns to ecosystem and population processes. Nature 373(6512):299–302Google Scholar
  77. Katz E (1992) The big lie: human restoration of nature. Res Philos Tech 12:231–241Google Scholar
  78. Keagy JC, Schreiber SJ, Cristol DA (2005) Replacing sources with sinks: when do populations go down the drain? Restor Ecol 13(3):529–535Google Scholar
  79. Keane RE, Parsons RE, Rollins MG (2004) Predicting fire regimes at multiple scales. In: Perera AJ, Buse LJ, Weber MG (eds) Emulating natural forest landscape disturbances: concepts and applications. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 55–68Google Scholar
  80. Kitching RL (2013) Niches and neutrality: community ecology for entomologists. Aust J Entomol 52:1–7Google Scholar
  81. Köhler M (2006) Long-term vegetation research on two extensive green roofs in Berlin. Urban Habitats 4(1):3–26Google Scholar
  82. Krishnan R, Hamidah A (2012) Stormwater runoff mitigation on extensive green roof: a review on trends and factors. In: Proceedings, OS 03, 6th South East Asian Technical Universities Consortium (SEATUC) Symposium, 6–7 March 2012, Malaysia. Accessed 9 May 2014
  83. Levin SA (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73(6):1943–1967Google Scholar
  84. Liu TC, Shyu GS, Fang WT, Liu SY, Cheng BY (2012) Drought tolerance and thermal effect measurements for plants suitable for extensive green roof planting in humid subtropical climates. Energy Build 47:180–188Google Scholar
  85. Louv R (2011) The nature principle: human restoration and the end of nature-deficit disorder. Algonquin Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1963) An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17:373–387Google Scholar
  87. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  88. Magurran AE (1988) Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  89. Magurran AE (2004) Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  90. Marshall JK (1968) Factors limiting the survival of Corynephorus canescens (L.) Beauv. in Great Britain at the northern edge of its distribution. Oikos 19(2):206–216Google Scholar
  91. McGuire KL, Payne SG, Palmer MI, Gillikin CM, Keefe D et al (2013) Digging the New York City skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks. PLoS One 8(3): e58020. PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Metz MR, Sousa WP, Valencia R (2010) Widespread density-dependent seedling mortality promotes species coexistence in a highly diverse Amazonian rain forest. Ecology 91(12):3675–3685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being, vol 5. Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  94. Mills LS, Soule ME, Doak DF (1993) The keystone-species concept in ecology and conservation. Bioscience 43(4):219–224Google Scholar
  95. Milton SJ, Dean WRJ, Klotz S (1997) Effects of small-scale animal disturbances on plant assemblages of set-aside land in Central Germany. J Veg Sci 8(1):45–54Google Scholar
  96. Mitsch W (2004) Ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Natural England (2014a) Local nature reserves. Accessed 12 May 2014
  98. Natural England (2014b) Local nature reserves: Sharrow School green roof, Sheffield. Accessed 12 May 2014
  99. Oberndorfer E, Lundholm J, Bass B, Coffman RR, Doshi H, Dunnett N, Gaffin S, Köhler M, Liu KKY, Rowe B (2007) Green roofs as urban ecosystems: ecological structures, functions, and services. BioScience 57(10):823–833Google Scholar
  100. Odum HT (1983) Systems ecology. Wiley, New York (reprinted in 1994 by University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado)Google Scholar
  101. Odum HT, Odum B (2003) Concepts and methods of ecological engineering. Ecol Eng 20(5):339–361Google Scholar
  102. Oesterheld M, Sala OE (1990) Effects of grazing on seedlings establishment: the role of seed and safe-site availability. Veg Sci 1:353–358Google Scholar
  103. Olive A, Minichiello A (2013) Wild things in urban places: America’s largest cities and multi-scales of governance for endangered species conservation. Appl Geogr 43:56–66Google Scholar
  104. Oomes MJM, Elberse WT (1976) Germination of six grassland herbs in microsites with different water contents. J Ecol 64(2):745–755Google Scholar
  105. Orians GH, Wittenberger JF (1991) Spatial and temporal scales in habitat selection. Am Nat 137:S29–S49Google Scholar
  106. Oro D (2013) Grand challenges in population dynamics. Front Ecol Evol 1(2):1–2Google Scholar
  107. Paine RT (1966) Food web complexity and species diversity. Am Nat 100(910):65–75Google Scholar
  108. Papafotiou M, Pergialioti N, Tassoula L, Massas I, Kargas G (2013a) Growth of native aromatic xerophytes in an extensive Mediterranean green roof as affected by substrate type and depth and irrigation frequency. HortScience 48(10):1327–1333Google Scholar
  109. Papafotiou M, Pergialioti N, Papanastassatos EA, Tassoula L, Massas I, Kargas G (2013b) Effect of substrate type and depth and the irrigation frequency on growth of semi-woody Mediterranean species in green roofs. ISHS Acta Horticulturae, II International Symposium on Woody Ornamentals of the Temperate Zone 990:481–486.
  110. Pearce H, Walters CL (2012) Do green roofs provide habitat for bats in urban areas? Acta Chiropterologica 14(2):469–478.×661774 Google Scholar
  111. Peterson AT, Soberôn J, Pearson RG, Anderson RP, Martínez-Meyer E, Nakamura M, Araújo MB (2011) Ecological niches and geographic distributions (MPB-49). Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  112. Petrişor A-I (2008) Levels of biological diversity: a spatial approach to assessment methods. Romanian Rev Regional Stud 4(1):41–62Google Scholar
  113. Pickett ST, Cadenasso ML (1995) Landscape ecology: spatial heterogeneity in ecological systems. Science 269(5222):331–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Pielou EC (1979) Biogeography. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. Power ME, Tilman D, Estes JA, Menge BA, Bond WJ, Mills LS, Daily G, Castilla JC, Lubchenco J, Paine RT (1996) Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bioscience 46(8):609–620Google Scholar
  116. Rapp JK, Rabinowitz D (1985) Colonization and establishment of Missouri Prairie plants on artificial soil disturbances. I. Dynamics of forb and graminoid seedlings and shoots. Am J Bot 72(10):1618–1628Google Scholar
  117. Rey PJ, Alcántara JM (2014) Effects of habitat alteration on the effectiveness of plant-avian seed dispersal mutualisms: consequences for plant regeneration. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 16(1):21–31Google Scholar
  118. Robertson BA, Hutto RL (2006) A framework for understanding ecological traps and an evaluation of existing evidence. Ecology 87(5):1075–1085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Ronce O (2007) How does it feel to be like a rolling stone? Ten questions about dispersal evolution. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 38:231–253Google Scholar
  120. Rosenzweig ML (2003) Win-win ecology: How the Earth’s species can survive in the midst of human enterprise. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  121. Roxburgh SH, Shea K, Wilson JB (2004) The intermediate disturbance hypothesis: patch dynamics and species coexistence. Ecology 85(2):359–371Google Scholar
  122. Royma T (1992) Analytical population dynamics. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  123. Sauer CO (1925) The morphology of landscape. University of California Publications (in Geography 22:19–53. Reprinted (1963) In: Leighly J). Land and life, a selection from the writings of Carl O. Sauer. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 315–350Google Scholar
  124. Schläpfer M, Zoller H, Körner C (1998) Influence of mowing and grazing on plant species composition in calcareous grassland. Bot Helv 108(1):57–67Google Scholar
  125. Schreiber SJ, Kelton M (2005) Sink habitats can alter ecological outcomes for competing species. J Anim Ecol 74(6):995–1004Google Scholar
  126. SER—Society for Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group (2004) The SER international primer on ecological restoration. & Society for Ecological Restoration International, Tucson
  127. Sheffield Local Biodiversity Action Partnership (2010) Habitat action plan, green roofs. Sheffield City Council, UK. Accessed 12 May 2014
  128. Simkin SM, Michener WK, Wyatt R (2004) Mound microclimate, nutrients and seedling survival. Am Midl Natl 152(1):12–24Google Scholar
  129. STLAi (Scott Torrance Landscape Architect Inc.) (2013) City of Toronto guidelines for biodiverse green roofs. Toronto: Toronto City Planning Division. Accessed 20 Jan 2014
  130. Suffling R, Perera A (2004) Characterizing natural forest disturbance regimes. In: Perera A, Buse LJ, Weber MG (eds) Emulating natural forest landscape disturbances: Concepts and applications (pp. 43–54). New York: Columbia University PressGoogle Scholar
  131. Sutton RK (2011) A model of human scale tested on rural landscape scenes. Great Plains Res 21:215–230Google Scholar
  132. Sutton RK (November 2013) Seeding green roofs with native grasses. J Living Archit 1(1) 26 pages.[2]Sutton.pdf
  133. Sutton R (2014) Aesthetics for green roofs and green walls. J Living Archit (March 2014), p 22Google Scholar
  134. Sutton R, Harrington J, Skabelund L, MacDonagh P, Coffman R, Koch G (2012) Prairie based green roofs: literature, templates and analogs. J Green Build 7(1):143–172. Accessed 21 April 2014Google Scholar
  135. Throop W (ed) (2000) Environmental restoration: ethics, theory and practice. Humanity Books, AmherstGoogle Scholar
  136. Thuring C, Dunnett N (2014) Vegetation composition of old extensive green roofs (from 1980s Germany). Ecol Process 3:4. Accessed 10 April 2014Google Scholar
  137. Tilman D, Kareiva PM (1997) Spatial ecology: the role of space in population dynamics and interspecific interactions. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  138. Town and Country Planning Association (2012) Planning for a healthy environment—good practice guidance for green infrastructure and biodiversity. TCPA and The Wildlife Trusts, London. Accessed 13 June 2014
  139. Turner MG, Dale VH (1998) Comparing large, infrequent disturbances: what have we learned? Ecosystems 1:493–496Google Scholar
  140. Turner MG, O’Neill RV, Gardner RH, Milne BT (1989) Effects of changing spatial scale on the analysis of landscape pattern. Landsc Ecol 3(3/4):153–162Google Scholar
  141. Van Dyck H, Baguette M (2005) Dispersal behaviour in fragmented landscapes: routine or special movements? Basic Appl Ecol 6(6):535–545Google Scholar
  142. van Lennep E, Finn S (2008) Green roofs over Dublin: a green roof policy guidance paper for Dublin August 5, 2008. Tepui, DublinGoogle Scholar
  143. Van Mechelen C, Dutoit T, Hermya M (2014) Mediterranean open habitat vegetation offers great potential for extensive green roof design. Landsc Urban Plan 121:81–91. Accessed 16 May 2014Google Scholar
  144. van Niekerk M, Greenstone C, Hickman M (2011) Creating space for biodiversity in Durban: guideline for designing green roof habitats. Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department, Thekwini Municipality Durban, SA. Accessed 12 May 2014
  145. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science 277(5325):494–499Google Scholar
  146. Waitakere City Council (2007) Potential NZ native plants for extensive greenroofs. Waitakere City Council, NZ. Accessed 23 April 2014
  147. Waitakere City Council (2010) Elevated enclaves—biodiversity enhancement for living roofs. A collaborative research project with Unitec Department of Landscape Architecture, Auckland, NZ. Accessed 10 May 2014
  148. Watt TA, Gibson CWD (1988) The effects of sheep grazing on seedling establishment and survival in grassland. Vegetatio 78(1–2):91–98Google Scholar
  149. Whittaker RH (1972) Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon 21:213–251Google Scholar
  150. Whittaker RH, Levin SA, Root RB (1973) Niche, habitat, and ecotope. Am Nat 107:321–338Google Scholar
  151. Williams NSG, Rayner JP, Raynor KJ (2010) Green roofs for a wide brown land: opportunities and barriers for rooftop greening in Australia. Urban For Urban Green 9(3):245–251Google Scholar
  152. Woodward FI (1994) How many species are required in a functional ecosystem? In: Schulze E-D, Mooney HA (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 271–291 (2nd printing)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of HorticultureKwantlen Polytechnic UniversitySurreyCanada
  2. 2.ClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations