Advertisement

Discussion, Limitations and Suggestions

  • Engin KaradağEmail author
  • Ş. Koza Çiftçi
  • Fatih Bektaş
Chapter

Abstract

The correlational values obtained from research studies investigating the relationship between leadership and organizational outputs were quantitatively analyzed in this meta-analytic study. To determine the impact magnitudes of 13 organizational outputs of leadership , a sample group with a total of 600,201 subjects was compiled using 1,250 pieces of correlational data. The findings showed that leadership had a small-magnitude, positive effect on conflict management , medium-magnitude, positive effects on job satisfaction , organizational commitment , organizational culture , organizational citizenship and performance and large-magnitude, positive effects on organizational trust , organizational climate , organizational health , organizational learning and organizational justice . In contrast, a small-magnitude, negative effect was found for stress and burnout with regard to the effect of leadership .

Keywords

Leadership Style Average Impact Destructive Behavior Narrow Confidence Interval Organizational Output 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 267–299). New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  2. Appelbaum, S., Bartolomucci, N., Beaumier, E., Boulanger, J., Corrigan, R., Dore, I., et al. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of culture, leadership and trust. Management Decision, 42(2), 13–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avolio, B. J., Zhu, W., Koh, W., & Bhatia, P. (2004). Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: Mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 951–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balthazard, P., Cooke, R., & Potter, R. (2006). Dysfunctional culture, dysfunctional organization: Capturing the behavioral norms that form organizational culture and drive performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 709–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bass, B. M. (2000). The future of leadership in learning organizations. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(3), 18–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1989). Potential biases in leadership measures, how prototypes, leniency, and general satisfaction relate to ratings and rankings of transformational and transactional leadership constructs. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 49, 509–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee citizenship. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Black, G. L. (2007). A correlational analysis of servant leadership and school climate. Unpublished master thesis, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.Google Scholar
  11. Bogler, R. (2001). The influence of leadership style on teacher job satisfaction. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37(5), 662–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2008). Organizasyonları yeniden yapılandırmak: Yetenek, tercih ve liderlik. (Çev, A. Aypay; A. Tanrıöğen). Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.Google Scholar
  13. Bulach, C., Malone, B., & Castleman, C. (1995). An investigation of variables related to student achievement. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 8(2), 23–29.Google Scholar
  14. Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1980). New York attitude measures of the trust organizational commitment and personal need non-fulfillment. Social Forces, 53, 39–52.Google Scholar
  15. Cremer, D. D., Dijke, M. V., & Bos, A. E. R. (2007). When leaders are seen as transformational: The effects of organizational justice. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(8), 1797–1816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curral, S. C., & Epstein, M. J. (2003). The fragility of organizational trust: Lessons from the rise and fall of Enron. Organizational Dynamics, 32(2), 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dee, J. R., Henkin, A. B., & Singleton, C. A. (2006). Organizational commitment of teachers in urban schools: Examining the effects of team structures. Urban Education, 41, 603–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dodgson, M. (1993). Learning, trust and technological collaboration. Human Relation, 46(1), 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunn, M. W., Dastoor, B., & Sims, R. L. (2012). Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 4(1), 45–59.Google Scholar
  20. Eberlin, R. J., & Tatum, B. J. (2008). Making just decisions: Organizational justice, decision making, and leadership. Management Decision, 46(2), 310–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Einarsen, S., Aasland, M. S., & Skogstad, A. (2007). Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. English, E. M. (2011). Principals’ servant leadership and teachers’ job satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation, available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (UMI No. 3492651).Google Scholar
  23. Erez, E. (1987). Rehabilitation in justice: The prisoner’s perspective. Journal of Offender Counseling, Service and Rehabilitation, 11, 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Flores, M. A. (2004). The impact of school culture and leadership on new teachers’ learning in the workplace. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 7(4), 297–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freiberg, H. J. (1998). Measuring school climate: Let me count the ways. Educational Leadership, 56(1), 22–26.Google Scholar
  26. Friedkin, N. E., & Slater, M. R. (1994). School leadership and performance: A social network approach. Sociology of Education, 67(2), 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frontiera, J. (2010). Leadership and organizational culture transformation in professional sport. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(1), 71–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Giritli, H., Yazıcı, E. Ö., Oraz, G. T., & Acar, E. (2013). The interplay between leadership and organizational culture in the Turkish construction sector. International Journal of Project Management, 31, 228–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goddard, R., Hoy, W., & Hoy, A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 479–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greenberg, J. (1987). A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review, 12, 9–22.Google Scholar
  31. Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16(2), 399–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Greenberg, J., & Baron, R. A. (2000). Behavior in organization: Managing the human side work. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  33. Griffith, J. (2004). Relation of principal transformational leadership to school staff job satisfaction, staff turnover, and school performance. Journal of Educational Administration, 42(3), 333–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hawkins, P. (2011). Leadership team coaching: Developing collective transformational leadership. London: Kogan Page Limited.Google Scholar
  35. Heck, R. (2000). Examining the impact of school quality on school outcomes and improvement: A value-added approach. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36(4), 513–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). Motivation to work. New Brunswick, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Howell, J. M., & Hall-Merenda, K. E. (1999). The ties that bind: The impact of leader-member exchange, transformational and transactional leadership, and distance on predicting follower performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 680–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2010). Eğitim yönetimi: Teori, araştırma ve uygulama. (Çev Edt, Turan, S.). Ankara: Nobel.Google Scholar
  39. Hoy, W. K., & Tarter, C. J. (2004). Organizational justice in schools: No justice without trust. The International Journal of Educational Management, 18(4), 250–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Bliss, J. R. (1990). Organizational climate, school health, and effectiveness: A comparative analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 26, 260–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoy, W., Tarter, C., & Kottkamp, R. (1991). Open schools/healthy schools. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Hoyle, J., English, F., & Steffy, B. (1985). Skills for successful leaders. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.Google Scholar
  43. Hulpia, H., Devos, G., & Keer, H. V. (2011). The relation between school leadership from a distributed perspective and teachers’ organizational commitment: Examining the source of the leadership function. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(5), 728–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Imran, R., Zahoor, F., & Zaheer, A. (2012). Leadership and performance relationship: Culture matters. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 3(6), 713.Google Scholar
  45. Ishikawa, J. (2012). Leadership and performance in Japanese R&D teams. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18(2), 241–258.Google Scholar
  46. Jackson, T. A., Meyer, J. P., & Wang, X. H. (2013). Leadership, commitment, and culture: A meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20(1), 84–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Joseph, E. E., & Winston, B. E. (2005). A correlation of servant leadership, leader trust, and organizational trust. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jung, K., Moon, M. J., & Hahm, S. D. (2008). Exploring the linkage between ministerial leadership and performance in Korea. Administration & Society, 40, 667–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kale, M. (2013). Perceptions of college of education students in Turkey towards organizational justice, trust in administrators, and instructors. High Education, 66, 521–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Karadağ, E. (2009). Spiritual leadership and organizational culture: A study of structural equation model. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 9(3), 1357–1405.Google Scholar
  51. Kellerman, B. (2004). Bad leadership. What it is, how it happens, why it matters. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  52. Kelley, R. C., Thornton, B., & Daugherty, R. (2005). Relationships of between measures of leadership and school climate. Education, 126(1), 17–25.Google Scholar
  53. Khasawneh, S., Omari, A., & Abu-Tineh, A. M. (2012). The relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment: The case for vocational teachers in Jordan. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 40(4), 494–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1996). Direct and indirect effects of three core characteristic components on performance and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 36–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klatt, B., & Hiebert, M. (2001). The Encyclopedia of leadership: A practical guide to classic and contemporary leadership theories and techniques. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  56. Knutson, K. A., Miranda, A. O., & Washell, C. (2005). The connection between school culture and leadership social interest in learning organizations. Journal of Individual Psychology, 61(1), 25–36.Google Scholar
  57. Koene, B. A. S., Vogelaar, A. L. W., & Soeters, J. L. (2002). Leadership effects on organizational climate and financial performance: Local leadership effect in chain organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 193–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koh, W. L., Steers, R. M., & Terborg, J. R. (1995). The effects of transformational leadership on teacher attitudes and student performance in Singapore. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lawal, O., & Oguntuashe, K. (2012). Impacts of organizational leadership and culture on organizational trust: Role of job cadre. IFE PsychologIA, 20(1), 394–402.Google Scholar
  60. Leithwood, K., & Sun, J. (2012). The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A meta-analytic review of unpublished research. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(3), 387–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lewicki, R. J., McAllister, D. J., & Bles, D. J. (1998). Trust and distrust, new relationships and realities. Academy of Management Review, 23, 438–458.Google Scholar
  62. Lok, P., & Crawford, C. (2004). The effect of organisational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organisational commitment: A cross-national comparison. Journal of Management Development, 23(4), 321–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review. The Leadership Quarterly, 7, 385–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McDaniel, C., & Wolf, G. (1992). Transforming leadership in nursing service. Journal of Nursing Administration, 22, 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Meng, J., & Chin, C. (2007). Meta-analysis of transformational school leadership effects on school outcomes in Taiwan and the USA. Asia Pacific Education Review, 8(2), 166–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee- organization linkages, the psychology of commitment absenteeism and turnover. New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  68. Nguni, S., Sleegers, P., & Denessen, E. (2006). Transformational and transactional leadership effects on teachers’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in primary schools: The Tanzanian case. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 17(2), 145–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nyhan, R. C., & Marlowe, H. A. (1997). Development and psychometric properties of the organizational trust inventory. Evaluation Review, 21(5).Google Scholar
  70. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  71. Peters, J. T., & Waterman, H. R. (1995). Yönetme ve yükseltme sanatı. (Çev, Sargut, S.). İstanbul: Altın Kitaplar.Google Scholar
  72. Pillai, R., Scandura, T. A., & Williams, E. A. (1999). Leadership and organizational justice: Similarities and differences across cultures. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(4), 763–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996). Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of satisfaction, commitment, trust and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 22(2), 259–298.Google Scholar
  74. Roberson, M. E. B., & Strickland, O. J. (2010). The relationship between charismatic leadership, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Journal of Psychology, 144(3), 313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rowold, J. (2011). Relationship between leadership behaviors and performance: The moderating role of a work team’s level of age, gender, and cultural heterogeneity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(6), 628–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  77. Schyns, B., & Hansbrough, T. (2010). When leadership goes wrong: Destructive leadership, mistakes, and ethical failures. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  78. Schyns, B., & Schillng, J. (2013). How bad are the effects of bad leaders? A meta-analysis of destructive leadership and its outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 24, 138–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shin, Y. (2012). CEO ethical leadership, ethical climate, climate strength, and collective organizational citizenship behavior. Journal Business Ethics, 108, 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Spector, P. E. (1996). Industrial and organizational psychology. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  81. Strickland, O., Babcock, M., Gomes, L., Larson, E., Muh, V., & Secarea, A. (2007). The relationship between leader charisma, work engagement, and turnover intentions. Poster session presented at the annual Western Psychological Association, Seattle, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  82. Tajasom, A., & Ahmad, Z. A. (2011). Principals’ leadership style and school climate: Teachers’ perspectives from Malaysia. The International Journal of Leadership in Public Services, 7(4), 314–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thamrin, H. M. (2012). The influence of transformational leadership and organizational commitment on job satisfaction and employee performance. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 3(5), 566–572.Google Scholar
  84. Top, M., Tarcan, M., Tekingündüz, S., & Hikmet, N. (2013). An analysis of relationships among transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational trust in two Turkish hospitals. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 28, 217–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tosi, H. L., Rizzo, J. R., & Carroll, S. J. (1990). Managing organizational behavior. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  86. Tsui, A. S., Zhang, Z., Wang, H., Xin, K. R., & Wu, J. B. (2006). Unpacking the relationship between CEO leadership behaviour and organizational culture. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 113–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Varner, K. B. (2007). An examination of the relationship between leadership behaviors associated with school climate and student achievement in selected Alabama high schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL.Google Scholar
  88. Velez, P., & Strom, T. (2012). Effects of organizational trust. Organization Development Journal, 30(2), 39–49.Google Scholar
  89. Walumbva, F. O., Wu, C., & Orwa, B. (2008). Contingent reward transactional leadership, work attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: The role of procedural justice climate perceptions and strength. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 251–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang, G., Oh, I. S., Courtright, S. H., & Colbert, A. E. (2011). Transformational leadership and performance across criteria and levels: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of research. Group & Organization Management, 36(2), 223–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang, P., & Rode, J. C. (2010). Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The moderating effects of identification with leader and organizational climate. Human Relations, 63(8), 1105–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Whitney, J. O. (1994). The trust factor, liberating profits and restoring corporate vitality. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  93. Wiener, Y. (1982). Commitment in organizations, a normative view. Academy of Management Review, 1(7), 418–428.Google Scholar
  94. Yukl, G. (2008). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  95. Zigrang, C. B. (2000). The correlation between a principal’s leadership style and personality, as perceived by the teacher, and its effect on teacher job satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation, available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (UMI No. 9974042).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Engin Karadağ
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ş. Koza Çiftçi
    • 1
  • Fatih Bektaş
    • 1
  1. 1.Eskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations