Discussion, Limitations and Suggestions

  • Engin KaradağEmail author
  • Ş. Koza Çiftçi
  • Fatih Bektaş


The correlational values obtained from research studies investigating the relationship between leadership and organizational outputs were quantitatively analyzed in this meta-analytic study. To determine the impact magnitudes of 13 organizational outputs of leadership , a sample group with a total of 600,201 subjects was compiled using 1,250 pieces of correlational data. The findings showed that leadership had a small-magnitude, positive effect on conflict management , medium-magnitude, positive effects on job satisfaction , organizational commitment , organizational culture , organizational citizenship and performance and large-magnitude, positive effects on organizational trust , organizational climate , organizational health , organizational learning and organizational justice . In contrast, a small-magnitude, negative effect was found for stress and burnout with regard to the effect of leadership .


Leadership Style Average Impact Destructive Behavior Narrow Confidence Interval Organizational Output 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Engin Karadağ
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ş. Koza Çiftçi
    • 1
  • Fatih Bektaş
    • 1
  1. 1.Eskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehirTurkey

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