Conceptual Perspectives on Leadership

  • Nazım ÇoğaltayEmail author


From a historical development perspective, numerous approaches and theories based on these approaches have been developed to explain the nature of leadership . We can state that each approach or theory has brought about a different perspective in terms of the conceptualization of leadership . The trait approach, behavioral approach, situational approach and contemporary approach complement one another chronologically and are all valid in certain ways. The main reason for the intensive research on the concept of leadership and the various approaches and theories is that the results are either directly or indirectly observed in organizations. A leader and his/her behaviors affect the performance of employees, job satisfaction , perceptions of justice , sense of trust toward one another and toward the organization, and—more essentially and generally—the culture and atmosphere that determine the entire dynamic of an organization. In this chapter, the concept of the leadership is explained by associating to organizational outputs. The leadership and organizational outputs are tried to be analyzed theoretically in the axis of some research findings.


Emotional Intelligence Ethical Leadership Common Goal Transformational Leader Spiritual Leadership 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adair, J. (2004). Handbook of management and leadership. London: Replika.Google Scholar
  2. Adair, J. (2012). Hz. Muhammed örneğinden hareketle liderlik [Leadership of Muhammad] (Trans. A. Çavuşoğlu). İstanbul: Ufuk.Google Scholar
  3. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York, NY: Free.Google Scholar
  4. Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  5. Bennis, W. (2003). On becoming a leader. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  6. Blake, R. R., & Mouton, J. S. (1964). The managerial grid. Houston, TX: Gulf.Google Scholar
  7. Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2008). Organizasyonları yeniden yapılandırmak: Yetenek, tercih ve liderlik [Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, leadership] (Trans. A. Aypay; A. Tanrıöğen). Ankara: Seçkin.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, M. E., & Trevino, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 595–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  10. Çalık, T. (2003). Performans yönetimi: Tanımlar, kavramlar, ilkeler [Performance management: definitions, concepts, principles] Ankara: Gündüz Eğitim.Google Scholar
  11. Clarke, J. (2002). Maymuncuk: İş yerinde iletişim ve politika [Savvy: Dealing with people, power and politics at work] (Trans. Dicleli, Z.). İstanbul: MESS.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, C. D., Scandura, T. A., & Schriesheim, C. A. (2005). Looking forward but learning from our past: Potential challenges to developing authentic leadership theory and authentic leaders. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 475–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curral, S. C., & Epstein, M. J. (2003). The fragility of organizational trust: Lessons from the rise and fall of enron. Organizational Dynamics, 32(2), 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elmore, R. F. (2000). Building a new structure for school leadership. The Albert Shanker Institute. Retrieved from
  15. Evans, M. G. (1970). The effects of supervisory behavior on the path-goal relationship. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 5, 277–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fiedler, F. E. (1964). A contingency model of leadership effectiveness. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 149–190). New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  17. Fiedler, F. E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York, NY: McGraww-Hill.Google Scholar
  18. Fleming, K. Y. (2004). Soulful leadership: Leadership characteristics of spiritual leaders contributing to increased meaning in life and work. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65(01), 211A (UMI No. 3120403).Google Scholar
  19. French, J. R. P., & Raven, B. H. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  20. Friedkin, N. E., & Slater, M. R. (1994). School leadership and performance: A social network approach. Sociology of Education, 67(2), 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. (2005). Can you see the real me? A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 343–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gardner, W. L., Cogliser, C. C., Davis, K. M., & Dickens, M. P. (2011). Authentic leadership: A review of the literature and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 1120–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gibb, C. A. (1954). Leadership. In G. Lindzey (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 877–917). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  25. Gronn, P. (2000). Distributed properties: A new architecture for leadership. Educational Management and Administration, 28(3), 338–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gronn, P. (2002). Distributed leadership as a unit of analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 423–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hersey, P., & Blanckhard, K. H. (1969). Life-cycle theory of leadership. Training and Development Journal, 23, 26–34.Google Scholar
  28. Hoerr, T. R. (2005). The art of school leadership. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.Google Scholar
  29. House, R. J. (1971). A path goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 321–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. House, R. J., & Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Path-goal theory and leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3, 81–97.Google Scholar
  31. Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2010). Eğitim yönetimi: Teori, araştırma ve uygulama [Educational administration: Theory, research and practice] (Ed. & Trans. Turan, S.). Ankara: Nobel.Google Scholar
  32. Ishikawa, J. (2012). Leadership and performance in Japanese R&D teams. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18(2), 241–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jung, K., Moon, M. J., & Hahm, S. D. (2008). Exploring the linkage between ministerial leadership and performance in Korea. Administration & Society, 40, 667–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Keçecioğlu, T. (1998). Liderlik ve liderler: Değişim yolunda iyi bir öğrenci ve iyi bir öğretmen [Leadership and leaders: A good student and teacher in the way of change]. İstanbul: Kalder.Google Scholar
  35. Kesken, J., & Ayyıldız, N. A. (2008). Liderlik yaklaşımlarında yeni perspektifler: Pozitif ve otantik liderlik [New perspectives in leadership approaches: Positive and authentic leadership]. Ege Akademik Bakış, 8(2), 729–754.Google Scholar
  36. Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter? The Executive, 5, 48–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Klenke, K. (2007). Authentic leadership: A self, leader, and spiritual identity perspective. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 13(1), 68–97.Google Scholar
  38. Koçel, T. (2005). İşletme yöneticiliği [Business management]. İstanbul: Arıkan.Google Scholar
  39. Köseoğlu, Ö. (2005). Belediyelerde performans yönetimi [Performance management in municipalities]. Türk İdare Dergisi., 77(447), 211–235.Google Scholar
  40. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2002). The leadership challenge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  41. Lewicki, R. J., McAllister, D. J., & Bies, D. J. (1998). Trust and distrust, new relationships and realities. Academy of Management Review, 23, 438–458.Google Scholar
  42. Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review. The Leadership Quarterly, 7, 385–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mann, R. D. (1959). A review of the relationship between personality and performance in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 241–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maxwell, J. C. (1993). Developing the leader within you. Nashville: Injoy Inc.Google Scholar
  45. Mayer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee- organization linkages, the psychology of commitment absenteeism and turnover. New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  47. Nourthouse, P. G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Sage.Google Scholar
  48. Owen, H., Hodgson, V., & Gazzard, N. (2011). Liderlik el kitabı [The leadership manual]. (Trans. M. Çelik.), İstanbul: Optimist.Google Scholar
  49. Palestini, R. (2009). From leadership theory to practice: A game plan for success as a leader. New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield Education.Google Scholar
  50. Reddin, W. J. (1967). 3-D Management style theory-typology based on task and relationships orientations. Training and Development Journal, 21(4), 8–17.Google Scholar
  51. Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2012). Organizational behaviour. Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
  52. Rowold, J. (2011). Relationship between leadership behaviors and performance: The moderating role of a work team’s level of age, gender, and cultural heterogeneity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(6), 628–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rubenstein, H. (2003). Ethical leadership. Retrieved July 01, 2013, from
  54. Sanders, J. E., Hopkins, W. E., & Geroy, G. D. (2004). A causal assessment of the leadership-commitment relationship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  55. Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2005). Psychology and work today. Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
  56. Sergiovanni, T., & Starrat, R. (1998). Supervision: A redefinition. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  57. Shields, J. (2007). Social service work and job satisfaction: Revisiting Herzberg, Mauser & Snyderman. Unpublished master thesis, B.S Southwest Missouri State University, USA.Google Scholar
  58. Shraibman, F. K. (2008). An examination of the job satisfaction of the certified public accountants as it relates to their area of practice and their locus of control. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  59. Şişman, M. (2011). Öğretim liderliği [Instructional leadership]. Ankara: PegemA.Google Scholar
  60. Spillane, J. (2005). Distributed leadership. The Educational Forum, 69, 143150.Google Scholar
  61. Spillane, J. P. (2006). Distributed leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  62. Stogdill, R. M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 45–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  64. Thompson, R. L. (2004). The automatic hand: Spiritualism, psychoanalysis, surrealism. Invisible Culture: An Electronic Journal for Visual Culture, 7, 1–18.Google Scholar
  65. Verner, J. P. (2008). A descriptive study of educator job satisfaction and valued communications. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University Of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA.Google Scholar
  66. Vries, M. K. (2007). Liderliğin gizemi [Leadership mystique] (Trans. Dicleli, Z.). İstanbul: MESS.Google Scholar
  67. Wang, G., Oh, I. S., Courtright, S. H., & Colbert, A. E. (2011). Transformational leadership and performance across criteria and levels: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of research. Group & Organization Management, 36(2), 223–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wilson, C. (2009). Relative influences of Arizona high school principals’ job satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  69. Woolfe, L. (2002). The bible on leadership. New York, NY: AMACOM.Google Scholar
  70. Wray, R. D., Luft, R. G., & Highland, P. J. (1996). Human relations. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Educational.Google Scholar
  71. Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  72. Zaccaro, S. J., Kemp, C., & Bader, P. (2004). Leader traits and attributes. In J. Antonakis, A. T. Cianciolo, & R. J. Stenberg (Eds.), The nature of leadership (pp. 101–124). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Muş Alparslan UniversityMuşTurkey

Personalised recommendations