Advertisement

Late Motherhood in Low-Fertility Countries: Reproductive Intentions, Trends and Consequences

  • Tomáš Sobotka
  • Éva Beaujouan
Chapter

Abstract

Delayed parenthood is a central feature of the massive transformation of family and reproduction in rich countries. We analyse the shift of motherhood towards later reproductive ages during the last four decades and review its consequences for children and their mothers in low-fertility countries in Europe, North America, Oceania and East Asia. First we analyse the trends in birth rates at advanced reproductive ages (35+) and document the rapid rise in first and second birth rates at these ages. We show that a relatively high share of childless women and of women with one child aged 35-44 still plan to have a(nother) child in the future. Subsequently, we discuss the limited success rates of assisted reproduction at advanced reproductive ages. Next we outline the key drivers of delayed parenthood and its demographic consequences. Finally, we briefly review the consequences of delayed motherhood for pregnancy outcomes, maternal and child health and highlight selected positive consequences of later parenthood for mothers and children. We argue that economic and social rationales for late reproduction clash with the biological and health rationales for having children earlier in life.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research by T. Sobotka was funded by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement no 284238 (EURREP project). E. Beaujouan’s contribution was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), project FWF P28071-G22 (“Running Against the Clock? Realising Family Plans Over the Life-course”). The earlier more extensive draft of this chapter is available as a working paper [30].

References

  1. 1.
    Lesthaeghe R. The unfolding story of the Second Demographic Transition. Popul Dev Rev. 2010;36(2):211–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    van de Kaa DJ. On the societal impact of modern contraception. In: Beets G, Schippers J, te Velde E, editors. The future of motherhood in western societies. Dordrecht: Springer; 2011. p. 49–60.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jones EF, Forrest JD, Goldman N, Henshaw SK, Lincoln R, Rosoff JI, Westoff CF, Wulf D. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries: determinants and policy implications. Fam Plan Perspect. 1985;17(2):53–63.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heffner LJ. Advanced maternal age—how old is too old? N Engl J Med. 2004;351(19):1927–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Twenge J. How long can you wait to have a baby? The Atlantic July/August 2013 Issue. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/07/how-long-can-you-wait-to-have-a-baby/309374/
  6. 6.
    Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. RCOG statement on later maternal age. 2009. http://www.rcog.org.uk/what-we-do/campaigning-and-opinions/statement/rcog-statement-latermaternal-age
  7. 7.
    La Liberte A. Why have a child after 40? Blog Post. 2012. http://achildafter40.com/about-a-child-after-40/. Accessed Oct 2016.
  8. 8.
    McLanahan S. Diverging destinies: How children are faring under the second demographic transition? Demography. 2004;41(4):607–27.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bewley S, Davies M, Braude P. Which career first? BMJ. 2005;331:588–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Selvaratnam T. The big lie: motherhood, feminism, and the reality of the biological clock. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books; 2014.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Budds K, Locke A, Burr V. Risky business: constructing the ‘choice’ to ‘delay’ motherhood in the British press. Fem Med Stud. 2013;13(1):132–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shaw RL, Giles DC. Motherhood on ice? A media framing analysis of older mothers in the UK news. Psychol Health. 2009;24(2):221–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bretherick KL, Fairbrother N, Avila L, Harbord SH, Robinson WP. Fertility and aging: do reproductive-aged Canadian women know what they need to know? Fertil Steril. 2010;93(7):2162–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Daniluk JC, Koert E, Cheung A. Childless women’s knowledge of fertility and assisted human reproduction: identifying the gaps. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(2):420–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lampic C, Svanberg AS, Karlström P, Tydén T. Fertility awareness, intentions concerning childbearing, and attitudes towards parenthood among female and male academics. Hum Reprod. 2006;21(2):558–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tough S, Benzies K, Fraser-Lee N, Newburn-Cook C. Factors influencing childbearing decisions and knowledge of perinatal risks among Canadian men and women. Matern Child Health J. 2007;11(2):189–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sobotka T. Postponement of childbearing and low fertility in Europe. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Groningen. Amsterdam: Dutch University Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Human Fertility Database. Period and cohort fertility rates by age and birth order; data on mean age at first birth accessed at www.humanfertility.org (data downloaded 5 October 2016). Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany) and Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria). 2016.
  19. 19.
    Human Fertility Collection. Period age-specific fertility rates accessed at www.fertilitydata.org (data downloaded 5 October 2016). Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany) and Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria). 2016.
  20. 20.
    Yoo SH, Sobotka T. The role of tempo effect in the ultra-low fertility in South Korea. Paper presented at the 2016 annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., 1 April 2016, 2016.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    United Nations. World fertility report 2013: fertility at the extremes. New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; 2013.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rosero-Bixby L, Castro-Martín T, Martín-García T. Is Latin America starting to retreat from early and universal childbearing? Demogr Res. 2009;20(9):169–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sobotka T. Post-transitional fertility: the role of childbearing postponement in fuelling the shift to low and unstable fertility levels. J Biosoc Sci. 2017. Forthcoming.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sheps MC. An analysis of reproductive patterns in an American isolate. Popul Stud. 1965;19(1):65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Osterman MJK et al.. Births: final data for 2014. National vital statistics reports, vol. 64, No. 12. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2015.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Park MM. Births: final data for 2000 national vital statistics reports, vol. 50, No. 5. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2002.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eurostat. Data on births by age of mother and birth order in 2000–2014. Eurostat online database, theme “Population and Social Conditions”. 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database. Accessed Oct 2016.
  28. 28.
    Wikipedia. Pregnancy over age 50. 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy_over_age_50. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.
  29. 29.
    Beaujouan É. Counting how many children people want: The influence of question filters and pre-codes. Demográfia. 2014;56(5):35–61. English edition 2013Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beaujouan É, Sobotka T. Late motherhood in low-fertility countries: reproductive intentions, trends and consequences. In: Vienna Institute of Demography Working Papers and Human Fertility Database Research Report VID WP 02/2017 and HFD RR-2017-002; 2017.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wyndham N, Figueira PGM, Patrizio P. A persistent misperception: assisted reproductive technology can reverse the “aged biological clock”. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(5):1044–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mac Dougall K, Beyene Y, Nachtigall RD. Age shock: misperceptions of the impact of age on fertility before and after IVF in women who conceived after age 40. Hum Reprod. 2012;28(2):350–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Szewczuk E. Age-related infertility: a tale of two technologies. Sociol Health Illn. 2012;34(3):429–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    CDC. Assisted reproductive technology national summary report 2013. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2015.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Calhaz-Jorge C, De Geyter C, Kupka MS, De Mouzon J, Erb K, Mocanu E, Motrenko T, Scaravelli G, Wyns C, Goossens V, Gliozheni O. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2012: results generated from European registers by ESHRE. Hum Reprod. 2016;31(8):1638–52.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nyboe Andersen A, Gianaroli L, Felberbaum R, de Mouzon J, Nygren KG. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2002. Results generated from European registers by ESHRE. Hum Reprod. 2006;21(7):1680–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gnoth C, Maxrath B, Skonieczny T, Friol K, Godehardt E, Tigges J. Final ART success rates: a 10 years survey. Hum Reprod. 2011;26(8):2239–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Malizia BA, Hacker MR, Penzias AS. Cumulative live-birth rates after in vitro fertilization. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(3):236–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leridon H. Can assisted reproduction technology compensate for the natural decline in fertility with age? A model assessment. Hum Reprod. 2004;19(7):1549–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ng EHY, Ho PC. Ageing and ART: a waste of time and money? Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;21(1):5–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sullivan E, Wang Y, Chapman M, Chambers G. Success rates and cost of a live birth following fresh assisted reproduction treatment in women aged 45 years and older, Australia 2002–2004. Hum Reprod. 2008;23(7):1639–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stoop D, Cobo A, Silber S. Fertility preservation for age-related fertility decline. Lancet. 2014;384(9950):1311–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mills M, Rindfuss RR, McDonald P, te Velde E. Why do people postpone parenthood? Reasons and social policy incentives. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17(6):848–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldin C, Katz LF. The power of the pill: Oral contraceptives and women’s career and marriage decisions. J Polit Econ. 2002;110(4):730–70.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bailey MJ. Reexamining the impact of family planning programs on US fertility: Evidence from the War on Poverty and the early years of Title X. Am Econ J Appl Econ. 2012;4(2):62–97.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Daniels K, Jones J, Abma J. Use of emergency contraception among women aged 15–44: United States, 2006–2010. NCHS data brief no 112. 2013. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Blossfeld H-P, Huinink J. Human capital investments or norms of role transition? How women’s schooling and career affect the process of family formation. Am J Sociol. 1991;97(1):143–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kalwij A, Gustafsson S, editors. Education and postponement of maternity: economic analyses for industrialized countries. Dordrecht: Kluwer/Springer; 2006.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ní Bhrolcháin M, Beaujouan É. Fertility postponement is largely due to rising educational enrolment. Popul Stud. 2012;66(3):311–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Berrington A, Stone J, Beaujouan É. Educational differences in timing and quantum of childbearing in Britain: a study of cohorts born 1940–1969. Demogr Res. 2015;33(Article 26):733–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lappegård T, Rønsen M. The multifaceted impact of education on entry into motherhood. Eur J Popul. 2005;21(1):31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rindfuss RR, Morgan SP, Offut K. Education and the changing age pattern of American fertility. Demography. 1996;33(3):277–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rendall M, Aracil E, Bagavos C, Couet C, DeRose A, DiGiulio P, Lappegård T, Robert-Bobée I, Rønsen M, Smallwood S, Verropoulou G. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: a seven-country comparison by birth cohort. Popul Stud. 2010;64(3):209–27.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Adsera A. Vanishing children: from high unemployment to low fertility in developed countries. Am Econ Rev Pap Proc. 2005;95(2):189–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cooke A, Mills TA, Lavender T. ‘Informed and uninformed decision making’—Women’s reasoning, experiences and perceptions with regard to advanced maternal age and delayed childbearing: a meta-synthesis. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010;47(10):1317–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gregory E. Ready: why women are embracing the new later motherhood. New York: Basic Books; 2007.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bongaarts J, Sobotka T. A demographic explanation for the recent rise in European fertility. Popul Dev Rev. 2012;38(1):83–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    VID. European Demographic Data Sheet 2016. Vienna Institute of Demography and IIASA/Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital. 2016. Accessed www.populationeurope.orgGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Leopold T, Skopek J. The delay of grandparenthood: a cohort comparison in East and West Germany. J Marriage Fam. 2015;77(2):441–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schmidt L, Sobotka T, Bentzen JG, Nyboe Andersen A. Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood. Hum Reprod Update. 2012;18(1):29–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Goldstein J, Lutz W, Scherbov S. Long-term population decline in Europe: The relative importance of tempo-effects and generational length. Popul Dev Rev. 2003;29(4):699–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Leridon H, Slama R. The impact of a decline in fecundity and of pregnancy postponement on final number of children and demand for assisted reproduction technology. Hum Reprod. 2008;23(6):1312–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Te Velde E, Habbema D, Leridon H, Eijkemans M. The effect of postponement of first motherhood on permanent involuntary childlessness and total fertility rate in six European countries since the 1970s. Hum Reprod. 2012;27(4):1179–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Beemsterboer SN, Homburg R, Gorter NA, Schats R, Hompes PGA, Lambalk CB. The paradox of declining fertility but increasing twinning rates with advancing maternal age. Hum Reprod. 2006;21(6):1531–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pison G, Monden C, Smits J. Twinning rates in developed countries: trends and explanations. Popul Dev Rev. 2015;41(4):629–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Black M, Bhattacharya S. Epidemiology of multiple pregnancy and the effect of assisted conception. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;15(6):306–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cook JL, Collins J, Buckett W, Racowsky C, Hughes E, Jarvi K. Assisted reproductive technology-related multiple births: Canada in an international context. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2011;33(2):159–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Källén B, Finnström O, Lindam A, Nilsson E, Nygren KG, Olausson PO. Trends in delivery and neonatal outcome after in vitro fertilization in Sweden: data for 25 years. Hum Reprod. 2010;25(4):1026–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Umstad MP, Hale L, Wang YA, Sullivan EA. Multiple deliveries: The reduced impact of in vitro fertilisation in Australia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;53(2):158–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Balasch J, Gratacós E. Delayed childbearing: effects on fertility and the outcome of pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012;24(3):187–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bianco A, Stone J, Lynch L, Lapinski R, Berkowitz G, Berkowitz RL. Pregnancy outcome at age 40 and older. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87(6):917–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Delbaere I, Verstraelen H, Goetgeluk S, Martens G, De Backer G, Temmerman M. Pregnancy outcome in primiparae of advanced maternal age. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;135(1):41–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jacobsson B, Ladfors L, Milsom I. Advanced maternal age and adverse perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104(4):727–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Luke B, Brown MB. Contemporary risks of maternal morbidity and adverse outcomes with increasing maternal age and plurality. Fertil Steril. 2007;88(2):283–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nybo Andersen AM, Wohlfahrt J, Christens P, Olsen J, Melbye M. Maternal age and fetal loss: population based register linkage study. BMJ. 2000;320(7251):1708–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    de La Rochebrochard E, Thonneau P. Paternal age and maternal age are risk factors for miscarriage; results of a multicentre European study. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(6):1649–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Abdalla HI, Burton G, Kirkland A, Johnson MR, Leonard T, Brooks AA, Studd JW. Pregnancy: age, pregnancy and miscarriage: uterine versus ovarian factors. Hum Reprod. 1993;8(9):1512–7.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schieve LA, Tatham L, Peterson HB, Toner J, Jeng G. Spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived using assisted reproductive technology in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(5, Part 1):959–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Habbema JDF, Eijkemans MJ, Leridon H, te Velde ER. Realizing a desired family size: when should couples start? Hum Reprod. 2015;30(9):2215–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Joseph KS, Allen AC, Dodds L, Turner LA, Scott H, Liston R. The perinatal effects of delayed childbearing. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(6):1410–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Voigt M, Briese V, Carstensen M, Wolterdorf F, Hallier E, Straube S. Age-specific preterm birth rates after exclusion of risk factors—an analysis of the German Perinatal Survey. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2010;214(4):161–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Heslehurst N, Ells LJ, Simpson H, Batterham A, Wilkinson J, Summerbell CD. Trends in maternal obesity incidence rates, demographic predictors, and health inequalities in 36 821 women over a 15-year period. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;114(2):187–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Luke B, Brown MB, Nugent C, Gonzalez-Quintero VH, Witter FR, Newman RB. Risk factors for adverse outcomes in spontaneous versus assisted conception twin pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(2):315–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pinborg A. IVF/ICSI twin pregnancies: risks and prevention. Hum Reprod Update. 2005;11:575–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mulder CH. Home-ownership and family formation. J Housing Built Environ. 2006;21(3):281–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mulder CH, Billari FC. Homeownership regimes and low fertility. Hous Stud. 2010;25(4):527–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Clark WA. Do women delay family formation in expensive housing markets? Demogr Res. 2012;27(1):1–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lino M. Expenditures on children by families, 2013. U.S. Department of Agriculture; 2014. https://www.cnpp.usda.gov/sites/default/files/expenditures_on_children_by_families/crc2013.pdf
  89. 89.
    Björklund A. Does family policy affect fertility? J Popul Econ. 2006;19(1):3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Joshi H. Production, reproduction and education: Women, children and work in a British perspective. Popul Dev Rev. 2002;28(3):445–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Miller AR. The effects of motherhood timing on career path. J Popul Econ. 2011;24(3):1071–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Taniguchi H. The timing of childbearing and women’s wages. J Marriage Fam. 1999;61(6):1008–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Herr JL. Measuring the effect of the timing of first birth on wages. J Popul Econ. 2016;29(1):39–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Engelhardt H, Schreyer J. Timing of first birth and well-being in later life. J Fam Res (Zeitschrift für Familienforschung). 2014;26(3):331–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Goisis A, Sigle-Rushton W. Childbearing postponement and child well-being: a complex and varied relationship? Demography. 2014;51(5):1821–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Finer LB, Zolna MR. Unintended pregnancy in the United States: incidence and disparities, 2006. Contraception. 2012;84(5):478–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mosher WD, Jones J, Abma JC. Intended and unintended births in the United States: 1982–2010. National health statistics reports 55, July 2012; 2012.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Musick K, Michelmore K. Change in the stability of marital and cohabiting unions following the birth of a child. Demography. 2015;52(5):1463–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hansen K, Hawkes D, Joshi H. The timing of motherhood, mothers’ employment and child outcomes. In: Stillwell J, Coast E, Kneale D, editors. Fertility, living arrangements, care and mobility. New York: Springer; 2009. p. 59–70. Chapter 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Myrskylä M, Margolis R. Happiness: before and after the kids. Demography. 2014;51(5):1843–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Barclay K, Myrskylä M. Advanced maternal age and offspring outcomes: reproductive aging and counterbalancing period trends. Popul Dev Rev. 2016;42(1):69–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Grundy E, Kravdal Ø. Reproductive history and mortality in late middle age among Norwegian men and women. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(3):271–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jaffe D, Kogan L, Manor O, Gielchinsky Y, Dior U, Laufer N. Influence of late-age births on maternal longevity. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25(6):387–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lee RD, Goldstein JR. Rescaling the life cycle. Longevity and proportionality. In: Carey JR, Tuljapurkar S, editors. Life span. Evolutionary, ecological and demographic perspectives. Supplement to Popul Dev Rev. 2003;29:183–207.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mac Dougall K, Beyene Y, Nachtigall RD. ‘Inconvenient biology:’ advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod. 2012;27(4):1058–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Daly I, Bewley S. Reproductive ageing and conflicting clocks: King Midas’ touch. Reprod Biomed Online. 2013;27(6):722–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Menken J. Age and fertility. How late can you wait? Demography. 1985;22(4):469–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, VID/ÖAW, WU)Vienna Institute of Demography (Austrian Academy of Sciences)ViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations