Future Strategies for the Development of Desensitising Products

  • Robert Hill
  • David G. Gillam


Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a clinical problem that may impact on the quality of life of individuals who experience discomfort when eating and drinking hot and cold food and drink during their day-to-day activities. Currently there is no ideal desensitising product (over the counter [toothpaste, gel or mouthwash] or dentist applied) that provides both fast-acting and long-lasting protection against the pain associated with DH. Currently toothpaste, gels and mouthwashe formulations are designed to reduce or relieve pain arising from DH based on either their (1) tubular-occluding components (e.g. silica, calcium carbonate, various apatites, oxalates or bioactive glass) or (2) nerve desensitisation properties (e.g. potassium ions) based on the hydrodynamic theory (see Chap. 2). A number of novel products have either been reformulated from existing products or developed as biomimetic materials as an alternative to the traditional desensitising products for treating DH, inhibiting caries and promoting remineralisation. The present chapter will focus attention on the physical and chemical properties of both traditional and novel products recommended for the treatment of DH as well as introducing more recent advances into the development of biomimetic products for the treatment of DH.


Bioactive Glass Calcium Phosphate Cement Dentine Tubule Dentine Surface Dentine Hypersensitivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of our colleagues in the preparation of the SEM images, namely, Dr. Delia Brauer, Dr. Natalia Karpukhina, Dr. Mohammed Mneimne, Dr. Xiaohui Chen, Dr. Saroash Shahid, Dr. Asad Mahmood, Dr. Allesia D’Onofrio and Tomas Duminis.


  1. Allen I, Newman H, Wilson M (2001) Antibacterial activity of particulate Bioglass® against supra- and subgingival bacteria. Biomaterials 22(12):1683–1687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambard AJ, Mueninghoff L (2006) Calcium phosphate cement: review of mechanical and biological properties. J Prosthodont 15(5):321–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brännström M (1963) A hydrodynamic mechanism in the transmission of pain-produced stimuli through the dentine. In: Anderson DJ (ed) Sensory mechanisms in dentine. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 73–79Google Scholar
  4. Brännström M, Åström A (1972) The hydrodynamics of the dentin; its possible relationship to dentinal pain. Int Dent J 22(2):219–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunton PA, Davies RPW, Burke JL, Smith A, Aggeli A, Brookes SJ, Kirkham J (2013) Treatment of early caries lesions using biomimetic self-assembling peptides – a clinical safety trial. Br Dent J 215:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen X, Gillam DG, Mustafa HA, Lysek D, Hill RG (2014) Dentine tubule occlusion of a novel self-assembling peptide containing gel. Abstract Presentation IADR, Cape Town (Abstract no 1347)Google Scholar
  7. Choudhary P, Tandon S, Ganesh M, Mehra A (2012) Evaluation of the remineralization potential of amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride containing pit and fissure sealants using scanning electron microscopy. Indian J Dent Res 23(2):157–163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cummins D (2010) Recent advances in dentin hypersensitivity: clinically proven treatments for instant and lasting sensitivity relief. Am J Dent 23(Sp Is A):3A–13APubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Docimo R, Montesani L, Maturo P, Costacurta M, Bartolino M, DeVizio W, Zhang YP, Cummins D, Dibart S, Mateo LR (2009) Comparing the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a commercial sensitive toothpaste containing 2 % potassium ion: an eight-week clinical study in Rome, Italy. J Clin Dent 20(Spec Iss):17–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Elliott JC, Elsevier BV (1994) Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates. Studies in Inorganic Chemistry Series 18:1–389Google Scholar
  11. Farooq I, Tylkowski M, Muller S, Tomasz Janicki T, Brauer DS, Robert G, Hill RG (2013) Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion. Biomed Mater 8:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gillam DG (1997) Clinical trial designs for testing of products for dentine hypersensitivity – a review. Periodontal Abstr 45:37–46Google Scholar
  13. Gillam D, Chesters R, Attrill D, Brunton P, Slater M, Strand P, Whelton H, Bartlett D (2013) Dentine hypersensitivity–guidelines for the management of a common oral health problem. Dent Updat 40(7):514–516, 518–520, 523–524Google Scholar
  14. Grossman L (1935) A systematic method for the treatment of hypersensitive dentine. J Am Dent Assoc 22:592–602Google Scholar
  15. Guida A, Hill RG, Towler M et al (2003) Preliminary work on the antibacterial effect of strontium in glass-ionomer cements. J Mater Sci Letts 22:1401–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones JR (2013) Review of bioactive glass: from Hench to hybrids. Acta Biomater 9:4457–4486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kang S-J, Kwon Y-H, Park J-B, Herr Y, Chung J-H (2009) The effects of hydroxyapatite toothpaste on tooth hypersensitivity. J Korean Acad Periodontol 39:9–16, KoreanCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim SH, Park JB, Lee CW, Koo KT, Kim TI, Seol YJ et al (2009) The clinical effects of a hydroxyapatite containing toothpaste for dentine hypersensitivity. J Korean Acad Periodontol 39(1):87–94, KoreanCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kirkham J, Firth A, Vernals D, Boden N, Robinson C, Shore RC, Brookes SJ, Aggeli A (2007) Self-assembling peptide scaffolds promote enamel remineralisation. J Dent Res 86:426–430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kleinberg I (2002) SensiStat, a new saliva-based composition for simple and effective treatment of dentinal sensitivity pain. Dent Today 21:42–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kleinberg I (2003) Acevebo AM, Chatteriee R Dental anti hypersensitivity composition and method US 2003/013385Google Scholar
  22. Komath M, Varma HK (2003) Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications. Bull Mater Sci 26(4):415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS (2007) Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound Repair Regen 15(1):2–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lynch RJ (2011) Zinc in the mouth, its interactions with dental enamel and possible effects on caries; a review of the literature. Int Dent J 61(Suppl 3):46–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mahmood A, Mneimne M, Zou L-F, Hill RG, Gillam DG (2014) Abrasive wear of enamel by bioactive glass-based toothpastes. Am J Dent 27:263–267Google Scholar
  26. Malts M, Emilson CG (1982) Susceptibility of oral bacteria to various fluoride salts. J Dent Res 61(6):786–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Markowitz K (2009) The original desensitizers: strontium and potassium salts. J Clin Dent 20(5):145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Mehta D, Gowda VS, Santosh A, Finger WJ, Sasaki K (2014) Randomized controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of dentin desensitizing agents. Acta Odontol Scand 72(8):936–941CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mneimne M (2014) PhD thesis, Development of Bioactive Glasses for Dental Treatments. Queen Mary University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Mneimne M, Hill RG, Langford R, Gillam DG, Earl J (2014) FIB-SEM depth profiling of dentine treated with novel bioactive glasses. Abstract Presentation IADR, Cape Town (Abstract no 679)Google Scholar
  31. Ni GX, Shu B, Huang G, Lu WW, Pan HB (2012) The effect of strontium incorporation into hydroxyapatites on their physical and biological properties. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 100(2):562–568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Pan HB, Li ZY, Lam WM, Wong JC, Darvell BW, Luk KD, Lu WW (2009) Solubility of strontium-substituted apatite by solid titration. Acta Biomater 5(5):1678–1685CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Park JJ, Park JB, Kwon YH, Herr Y, Chung JH (2005) The effect of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite containing toothpaste in the control of tooth hypersensitivity. J Korean Acad Periodontol 35:577–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rösing CK, Fiorini T, Liberman DN, Cavagni J (2009) Dentine hypersensitivity: analysis of self-care products. Braz Oral Res 23(Suppl 1):56–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Tai BJ, Bian Z, Jiang H, Greenspan DC, Zhong J, Clark AE, Du MQ (2006) Anti-gingivitis effect of a dentifrice containing bioactive glass (NovaMin) particulate. J Clin Periodontol 33:86–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Thanatvarakorn O, Nakashima S, Sadr A, Prasansuttiporn T, Thitthaweerat S, Tagami J (2013a) Effect of a calcium-phosphate based desensitizer on dentin surface characteristics. Dent Mater J 32(4):615–621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Thanatvarakorn O, Nakashima S, Sadr A, Prasansuttiporn T, Ikeda M, Tagami J (2013b) In vitro evaluation of dentinal hydraulic conductance and tubule sealing by a novel calcium–phosphate desensitizer. J Biomed Mater Res B 101B:303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yuan P, Shen X, Liu J, Hou Y, Zhu M et al (2012) Effects of dentifrice containing hydroxyapatite on dentinal tubule occlusion and hexavalent chromium cations sorption: a preliminary study. PLoS ONE 7(12):e45283. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045283 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dental Physical SciencesQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Centre for Adult Oral HealthBarts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry QMULLondonUK

Personalised recommendations