“This City Is Absolutely Fun and Trendy” A Destination Brand Personality Analysis in a Web 2.0 Setting

Conference paper


The emerging technological dynamics and increasing consumer power requires pro-active strategies by Destination Management Organizations (DMOs). Furthermore, positioning a destination around the feelings it generates, and its ability to offer visitors unique experiences, relationships, meanings and self-expressions is a strong competitive advantage. This study analyzes a city’s brand personality as reflected in online reviews from different service settings such as accommodation, sights, and restaurants. In addition, the study compares the results with tourists’ connotations with the same city as collected in a conventional survey. The combination of content analysis and comparative analysis provides recommendations for DMOs on how to develop emotional links and use consumers’ information exposed in an online setting.


Destination branding Web 2.0 Comparative study Brand personality 


  1. Aaker, A. (1991). Managing brand equity. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aaker, A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review, 38(3), 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aaker, A. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aaker, A. (2009). Managing brand equity. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  5. Blain, C., Levy, S. E., & Ritchie, N. (2005). Destination branding; Insights and practices from destination management organizations. Journal of Travel Research, 43, 328–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boulin, J. L. (2008). Institutional tourism does not elude Web 2.0. Tourisme & Loisirs, 265, 30–34.Google Scholar
  7. Camprubí, R., Guia, J., & Comas, J. (2013). The new role of tourists in destination image formation. Current Issues in Tourism, 203–209.Google Scholar
  8. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Guido, G. (2001). Brand personality: How to make the metaphor fit? Journal of Economic Psychology, 22(3), 377–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, C., & Phou, S. (2013). A closer look at destination; Image personality, relationship and loyalty. Tourism Management, 36, 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. d'Astous, A., & Boujbel, L. (2007). Positioning countries on personality dimensions: Scale development and implications for country marketing. Journal of Business Research, 60(3), 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Moya, M., & Jain, R. (2013). When tourists are your “friends”: Exploring the brand personality of Mexico and Brazil on Facebook. Public Relations Review, 39(1), 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickinger, A., & Költringer, C. (2011). Extracting destination representation and competitiveness from online content. Information Technology & Tourism, 13(4), 327–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ekinci, Y. (2003). From destination image to destination branding: An emerging area of research. E-Review of Tourism Research, 1(2), 21–24.Google Scholar
  14. Ekinci, Y., & Hosany, S. (2006). Destination personality: An application of brand personality to tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2), 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ekinci, Y., Sirakaya-turk, E., & Baloglu, S. (2007). Host image and destination personality. Tourism Analysis, 1(2), 433–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garcia, J. A., Gomez, M., & Molina, A. (2012). A destination-branding model; An empirical analysis based on stakeholders. Tourism Management, 33, 646–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Geuens, M., Weijters, B., & De Wulf, K. (2009). A new measure of brand personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(2), 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hankinson, G. (2010). Place branding research: A cross-disciplinary agenda and the views of practitioners. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(4), 300–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination image and destination personality; An application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of Business Research, 59, 638–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hsu, C., & Cai, L. A. (2009). Brand knowledge, trust and loyalty-a conceptual model of destination branding. In International CHRIE conference-refereed track (p. 12).Google Scholar
  21. Jalilvand, M., Samiei, N., Dini, B., & Manzari, P. (2012). Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention; An integrated approach. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 1, 134–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keller, K. L. (2003b). Understanding brands, branding and brand equity. Interactive Marketing, 5(1), 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keller, K. L. (2009). Building strong brands in a modern marketing communications environment. Journal of Marketing Communications, 15(2–3), 139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kötlinger, C. (2012). Evaluating destination online representation measurement leveraging online media for market research. Ph.D. Dissertation, Vienna University of Economica and Business, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  25. Labrecque, L., Mathwick, C., Novak, T., & Hofacker, C. (2013). Consumer power: Evolution in the digital age. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 27(4), 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marchiori, E., Pavese, G., & Cantoni, L. (2012). eTcoMM–eTourism communication maturity model. A framework to evaluate the maturity of a DMO when it comes to the online communication management: The case of Canton Ticino and Lombardy. Vienna: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Morgan, N., & Pritchard, A. (2004). Meeting the destination branding challenge. Destination Branding, 59–79.Google Scholar
  28. Morgan, N., Pritchard, A., & Pride, R. (2011). Destination brands: Managing place reputation. London: Routlegde.Google Scholar
  29. Munar, A. M. (2010). Tourist-created content; Rethinking destination branding. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(3), 291–305.Google Scholar
  30. Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., & Benckendorff, P. (2006). Destination brand personality; Visitors perceptions of a regional tourism destination. Tourism Analysis, 12, 419–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., & Benckendorff, P. (2007). Using brand personality to differentiate regional tourism destination. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., & Benckendorff, P. (2009). Linking travel motivation, tourist self-image and destination brand personality. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 22(2), 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Palmatier, R. W., Dant, R. P., Grewal, D., & Evans, R. (2006). Factors influencing the effectiveness of relationship marketing: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 136–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Papadimitriou, D., Apostolopoulou, A., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). Destination personality, affective image, and behavioral intentions in domestic urban tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 1–14.Google Scholar
  35. Pike, S. (2008). Destination marketing, an integrated marketing communication approach. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  36. Pike, S., & Ryan, C. (2004). Destination positioning analysis through a comparison of cognitive, affective, and conative perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42(2), 333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pitt, L. F., & Berthon, P. (2011). Just when you thought it was safe to go back into the Web: Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers. Business Horizons, 54(3), 181–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pollach, I. (2011). Software review; Wordstat 5.0. Organizational Research Methods, 14(4), 741–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Presi, C., Saridakis, C., & Hartmans, S. (2014). User generated content behaviour of the dissatisfied service customer. European Journal of Marketing, 48(9/10).Google Scholar
  40. Qu, H., Kim, L. H., & Im, H. H. (2011). A model of destination branding; integrating the concepts of the branding and destination image. Tourism Management, 23, 465–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ritchie, B., & Ritchie, R. (1998). The branding of tourism destination: Past achievements and future trends. In Destination Marketing: Scope and Limitations, Reports of 48th Congress (pp. 89–116). St. Gallen: AIEST.Google Scholar
  42. Sanin, S., & Baloglu, S. (2009). Brand personality and destination image of Istanbul: A comparison across nationalities. In 14th annual graduate student research conference in hospitality and tourism. Las Vegas, NV.Google Scholar
  43. Seljeseth, P., & Korneliussen, T. (2013). Experience-based brand personality as a source of value co-creation; The case of Lofoten. In The 2nn Nordin symposium in tourism and hospitality research (pp. 66–69). Bodo, Norway: University of Norland.Google Scholar
  44. Seraj, M. (2012). We create, we connect, we respect, therefore we are: Intellectual, social, and cultural value in online communities. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(2), 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sirgy, M. J. (1982). Self-concept in consumer behavior: A critical review. Journal of Consumer Research, 287–300.Google Scholar
  46. Sirgy, M. J., & Su, C. (2000). Destination image, self-congruity, and travel behavior: Toward an integrative model. Journal of Travel Research, 38(4), 340–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D. J., & Whan Park, C. (2005). The ties that bind: Measuring the strength of consumers’ emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Usakli, A., & Baloglu, S. (2011). Brand personality of tourist destination; An application of self-congruity theory. Tourism Management, 32, 114–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Tourism and Services ManagementMODUL UniversityViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations