Gamification of Workplace Activities

  • Michael Meder
  • Brijnesh Johannes Jain
  • Till Plumbaum
  • Frank Hopfgartner
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition book series (ACVPR)

Abstract

Gamification—taking game design patterns and principles out of video games to apply them in non-game environments has become a popular idea in the last 4 years. It has also successfully been applied to workplace environments, but it still remains unclear how employees really feel about the introduction of a gamified system. We address this matter by comparing the employees’ subjective perception of gamification with their actual usage behavior in an enterprise application software. As a result of the experiment, we find there is a strong relationship visible. Following up on this observation, we pose the gamification design problem under the assumptions that (i) gamification consists of various types of users that experience game design elements differently; and (ii) gamification is deployed in order to achieve some goals in the broadest sense, as the problem of assigning each user a game design element that maximizes their expected contribution to achieve these goals. We show that this problem can be reduced to a statistical learning problem and suggest matrix factorization as one solution when user interaction data is given. The hypothesis is that predictive models as intelligent tools for supporting users in decision-making may have the potential to support the design process in gamification.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Anderson, D. Huttenlocher, J. Kleinberg, J. Leskovec, Steering user behavior with badges, in Proceedings WWW (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2013), pp. 95–106Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Bartle, Hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades: players who suit MUDs. J. Virtual  Environ. (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E.J. Candès, B. Recht, Exact matrix completion via convex optimization. Found. Comput. Math. 9(6), 717–772 (2009)CrossRefMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L.-T. Cheng, S. Shami, C. Dugan, M. Muller, J. DiMicco, J. Patterson, S. Rohal, A. Sempere, W. Geyer, Finding moments of play at work, in Workshop on Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts, pp. 2–5 (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Cortes, V. Vapnik, Support-vector networks. Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995)MATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Deterding, D. Dixon, R. Khaled, L. Nacke, From game design elements to gamefulness: defining Gamification, in Proceedings of the International Academic MindTrek Conference, pp. 9–15 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Dixon, Player types and gamification, in Workshop on Gamification at CHI2011, pp. 12–15 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Farzan, J.M. DiMicco, When the experiment is over: deploying an incentive system to all the users, in Persuasive Technology (ACM, 2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Farzan, J.M. DiMicco, B. Brownholtz, Spreading the honey: a system for maintaining an online community, in Proceedings of the ACM GROUP’09, pp. 31–40 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Farzan, J.M. DiMicco, D.R. Millen, Results from deploying a participation incentive mechanism within the enterprise, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human  Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 563–572 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Hamari, J. Koivisto, Social motivations to use Gamification: an empirical study of gamifying exercise, in Proceedings of the ECIS’13, pp. 1–12 (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Hamari, Transforming homo economicus into homo Ludens: a field experiment on Gamification in a utilitarian peer-to-peer trading service. Electron. Commer. Res. Appl. 12(4), 236–245 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Hamari, J. Koivisto, H. Sarsa, Does Gamification work?—A literature review of empirical studies on Gamification, in Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Hamari, J. Tuunanen, Player types: a metasynthesis, in Transactions of the Digital Games Research Association (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Huotari, J. Hamari, Defining Gamification: a service marketing perspective, in Proceedings of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference, pp. 17–22 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.B. Kantor, L. Rokach, F. Ricci, B. Shapira, in Recommender Systems Handbook (Springer, New York, 2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Khaled, It’s not just whether you win or lose: thoughts on Gamification and culture. in Workshop on Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts,  pp. 1–4 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Khatib, F. DiMaio, Foldit Contenders Group, Foldit Void Crushers Group, S. Cooper, M. Kazmierczyk, M. Gilski, S. Krzywda, H. Zabranska, I. Pichova, J. Thompson, Z. Popović, M. Jaskolski, D. Baker, Crystal structure of a monomeric retroviral protease solved by protein folding game players. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 18, 1175 – 1177 (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Koren, R. Bell, C. Volinsky, Matrix factorization techniques for recommender systems. IEEE Comput. 42(8), 42–49 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.D. Lee, H.S. Seung, Learning the parts of objects by non-negative matrix factorization. Nature 401(6755), 788–91 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.J. Lee, J. Hammer, Gamification in education: what, how, why bother? Acad. Exch. Q. 15(2), 2 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Meder, T. Plumbaum, F. Hopfgartner, Perceived and actual role of Gamification principles, in First Workshop on Crowdsourcing and Gamification in the Cloud (CGCloud) in Conjunction with the 6th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (2013)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Meder, T. Plumbaum, F. Hopfgartner, Daiknow: a gamified enterprise bookmarking system. in Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Information Retrieval, ECIR’14 (Springer, 2014), pp. 759–762Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Moore, C. Dugan, M. Muller, D.R. Millen, W. Geyer, B. Brownholtz, The Dogear game: a social bookmark recommender system, in Proceedings of the ACM GROUP’07, pp. 387–390 (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    I. Mosca, +10! Gamification and de Gamification. G|A|M|E 1(1) (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Nielsen, Participation inequality: encouraging more users to contribute (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Nikkila, S. Lin, H. Sundaram, A. Kelliher, Playing in taskville: designing a social game for the workplace. in Workshop on Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts, pp. 1–4 (2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    F. Ortega, J.M. Gonzalez-Barahona, G. Robles, On the inequality of contributions to Wikipedia, in Proceedings of the International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 304–304 (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. Robinson, A preliminary taxonomy of Gamification elements for varying anticipated commitment, in Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2013 Workshop on Designing Gamification: Creating Gameful and Playful Experiences (2013)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Said, B. Jain, S. Narr, T. Plumbaum, Users and noise: the magic barrier of recommender systems, in User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization (Springer, Heidelberg, 2012)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    O. Stewart, D. Lubensky, J.M. Huerta, Crowdsourcing participation inequality: a SCOUT model for the enterprise domain, in Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD Workshop on Human Computation (2010), pp. 30–33Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Thom, D. Millen, J. DiMicco, Removing Gamification from an enterprise SNS, in Proceedings of the CSCW’12, pp. 1067–1070 (2012)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. Vapnik, in The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory (Springer, New York, 2000)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    L. von Ahn, L. Dabbish, Labeling images with a computer game, in Proceedings of the CHI’04, vol. 6(1), pp. 319–326 (2004)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. Yang, M.R. Morris, J. Teevan, L.A. Adamic, M.S. Ackerman, One Microsoft way. Culture matters: a survey study of social Q and A behavior, in International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp. 409–416 (2011)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    N. Yee, Motivations for play in online games. J. CyberPsychol. Behav. 9, 772–775 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    N. Yee, N. Ducheneaut, L. Nelson, Online gaming motivations scale: development  and validation, in Proceedings of the CHI’12, pp. 2803–2806 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Meder
    • 1
  • Brijnesh Johannes Jain
    • 1
  • Till Plumbaum
    • 1
  • Frank Hopfgartner
    • 1
  1. 1.Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations