Animal Models of Depression
- 1.3k Downloads
Stress is a concept related to biological responses produced in all living organisms when facing environmental changes. These biological responses allow them to adapt. Chronic stress is a major risk factor in the development of several chronic diseases that has a high social and economic impact in many countries. Within these diseases is depression. Through a better understanding of the neurobiology of stress and depressive episodes, better preventative therapies and antidepressants with fewer side effects may be developed. Animal models of chronic stress have provided very important information through the pathophysiology of depression-associated behaviors that are similar to the behavior of depressed patients. This chapter reviews several depression assays involving acute stress (e.g., forced swim test), models consisting of prolonged physical or social stress (e.g., social defeat), models of secondary depression, genetic models, and experiments designed to elucidate the mechanisms of antidepressant action. These paradigms are critically evaluated in relation to the disease, validity and replicability, the molecular insights that they, and their capacity to offer the next generation of therapeutics for depression.
KeywordsAnimal models Behavioral testing Depression Stress
We would like to thank the CYTED program (Action 112RT0460. “CORNUCOPIA” thematic network) for the support to the accomplishment of this work.
- American Psychiatric Association. DSM-IV, diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA; 1994. p. 345–59.Google Scholar
- Dedic N, Walser SM, Deussing JM. Mouse models of depression. In: Uehara T, editor. Psychiatric disorders—trends and developments. Rijeka: InTech; 2011. p. 185–222.Google Scholar
- Guimarães F, Joca S, Padovan C, Molina V. Mood disorders. In: Brandão M, Graeff F, editors. Neurobiology of mental disorders. New York, NY: Nova Science; 2006. p. 95–124.Google Scholar
- Langley G. The validity of animal experiments in medical research. Rev Semestr Droit Anim. 2009;1:161–8.Google Scholar
- Lieder F, Goodman ND, Huys QJM. Learned helplessness and generalization. Berlin: Paper presented at the cognitive science conference; 2013.Google Scholar
- Mesulam MM. Principles of behavioral and cognitive neurology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2000.Google Scholar