Advertisement

Style Approached from the Design Process

  • Chiu-Shui Chan
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Applied Philosophy, Epistemology and Rational Ethics book series (SAPERE, volume 17)

Abstract

Studies of style can be approached from two directions: the end and the means. From the end point of view, a style is a cluster of features present in artifacts; scholars usually classify the features in products to differentiate styles (Newton 1957; Finch 1974; Scott 1980; Smithies 1981; Chan 1994, 2000). Similar approaches used to examine features for further exploring the nature of style, the degree between styles, and the systematic measurement within style were extensively covered in Chap.  3. From the means point of view, a style is a mode by which designers’ personal and professional preferences are expressed, and studies attempt to deliberate the mode of expression to mark styles (Torossian 1937; Evans 1982; Cleaver 1985). Although most style researchers have studied both directions, their efforts cannot provide clear explanations of how a style is generated. That is because not enough research has been devoted to the study of the means used that create a style. This chapter begins to explore, through a case study, the aspects of style creation and the forces that generate a style (Chan 1995, 2001). Studies of style approached from the means point of view conducted in various fields and the factors determining the generation of style are reviewed first.

Keywords

Design Process Grid System Design Constraint Unit System Floor Plan 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ackerman JS (1963) Style. In: Ackerman JS, Carpenter R (eds) Art and archaeology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, pp 174–186Google Scholar
  2. Ackerman JS (1967) A theory of style. In: Beardsley MC, Schueller HM (eds) Aesthetic inquiry: essays on art criticism and the philosophy of art. Dickenson, Delmont, pp 54–66Google Scholar
  3. Akin O (1986) Psychology of architectural design. Pion, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Blake P (1960) The master builders. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks HA (1984) Frank Lloyd Wright and the prairie school. George Braziller, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Buffon MD (1923) Discourse on style. In: Cooper L (ed) Theories of style. Macmillan, New York, pp 169–179Google Scholar
  7. Chan CS (1989) Cognition in design process. In: Proceedings of the 11th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 291–298Google Scholar
  8. Chan CS (1990a) Psychology of style in design. Dissertation. Carnegie Mellon UniversityGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan CS (1990b) Cognitive processes in architectural design problem solving. Des Stud 11(2):60–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan CS (1992) Exploring individual style through Wright’s design. J Architect Plan Res 9(3):207–238Google Scholar
  11. Chan CS (1994) Operational definition of style. Environ Plan B Plan Des 21(2):223–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan CS (1995) A cognitive theory of style. Environ Plan B Plan Des 22(4):461–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan CS (2000) Can style be measured? Des Stud 21(3):277–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chan CS (2001) An examination of the forces that generate a style. Des Stud 22(4):319–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chan CS (2008) Design cognition: cognitive science in design. China Architecture & Building Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  16. Cleaver DG (1985) Art: an introduction. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  17. Connors J (1984) The Robie House of Frank Lloyd Wright. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  18. Einbinder H (1986) An American genius: Frank Lloyd Wright. Philosophical Library, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Evans HM (1982) An invitation to design. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Finch M (1974) Style in art history. Scarecrow Press, MetuchenGoogle Scholar
  21. Foz ATK (1972) Observations on designer behavior in the parti. Master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  22. Goldstein KM, Blackman S (1978) Cognitive style: five approaches and relevant research. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Gombrich EH (1960) Art and illusion: a study in the psychology of pictorial representation. Pantheon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Gombrich EH (1968) Style. In: Sills DL (ed) International encyclopedia of the social sciences. Macmillan, New York, pp 352–361Google Scholar
  25. Gombrich EH (1971) Meditations on a hobby horse. Phaidon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Gombrich EH (1982) The image and the eye. Phaidon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  27. Hitchcock H (1942) In the nature of materials. Duell/Sloan and Pearce, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Kroeber A (1963) An anthropologist looks at history. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  29. Kubler G (1979) Towards a reductive theory of visual style. In: Lang B (ed) The concept of style. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp 119–127Google Scholar
  30. LaRue J (1970) Guidelines for style analysis. W. W. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Lipman J (1986) Frank Lloyd Wright and the Johnson Wax Buildings. Rizzoli, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. MacCormac RC (1968) The anatomy of Wright’s aesthetic. Architect Rev 143:143–146Google Scholar
  33. MacCormac RC (1974) Froebel’s kindergarten gifts and the early work of Frank Lloyd Wright. Environ Plan B Plan Des 1:29–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Manson GC (1953) Wright in the nursery; the influence of Froebel education on his work. Architect Rev 113:349–351Google Scholar
  35. Manson GC (1958) Frank Lloyd Wright to 1910. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Messick S (1976) Personality consistencies in cognition and creativity. In: Messick S et al (eds) Individuality in learning. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp 4–22Google Scholar
  37. Meyer LB (1979) Toward a theory of style. In: Lang B (ed) The concept of style. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp 3–44Google Scholar
  38. Newton E (1957) Style and vision in art. Listener 57:467–469Google Scholar
  39. Rapoport A (1969) House form and culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  40. Rorick H (1975) The Frank Lloyd Wrighter. In: Negroponte N (ed) Reflections on computer aids to design and architecture. Petrocelli, New York, pp 49–60Google Scholar
  41. Schapiro M (1962) Style. In: Tax S (ed) Anthropology today: selections. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 278–303Google Scholar
  42. Scott G (1980) The architecture of humanism. The Architecture Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Scully VJ (1960) Frank Lloyd Wright. George Braziller, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Simon HA (1975) Style in design. In: Archea J, Eastman C (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd annual Environmental Design Research Association conference. Dowden/Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  45. Smithies KM (1981) Principles of design in architecture. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Sparshott F (1965) The structure of aesthetics. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  47. Steiner FH (1982) Frank Lloyd Wright in Oak Park and River Forest. Sigma Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  48. Storrer WA (1978) The architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  49. Streich ER (1972) An original-owner interview survey of Frank Lloyd Wright’s residential architecture. EDRA 3/AR8 conference, 2(13.10):1–8Google Scholar
  50. Suedfeld P (1971) Information processing as a personality model. In: Schroder HM, Suedfeld P (eds) Personality theory and information processing. Ronald Press, New York, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  51. Torossian A (1937) A guide to aesthetics. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  52. Twombly RC (1979) Frank Lloyd Wright, his life and his architecture. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Zanten D (1988) Schooling the Prairie School: Wright’s early style as a communicable system. In: Bolon CR, Nelson RS, Seidel L (eds) The nature of Frank Lloyd Wright. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 70–84Google Scholar
  54. Wackernagel W (1923) Poetics, rhetoric, and the theory of style. In: Cooper L (ed) Theories of style. Macmillan, New York, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  55. Weitz M (1970) Problems in aesthetics. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. White CEJ (1971) Letters from the studio of Frank Lloyd Wright. J Architect Educ 25:104–112Google Scholar
  57. Whyte LL (1961) A scientific view of the creative energy of man. In: Philipson M (ed) Aesthetics today. World Publishing, Cleveland, pp 349–374Google Scholar
  58. Wils J (1985) Frank Lloyd Wright. In: Brooks HA (ed) Writings on Wright. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 139–145Google Scholar
  59. Wollheim R (1979) Pictorial style: two views. In: Lang B (ed) The concept of style. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp 129–145Google Scholar
  60. Wright FL (1908) In the cause of architecture. Archit Rec 23:155–221Google Scholar
  61. Wright FL (1925) Frank Lloyd Wright: the life work of the American architect. Wendingen, SantpoortGoogle Scholar
  62. Wright FL (1928) In the cause of architecture. Archit Rec 63:49–57Google Scholar
  63. Wright FL (1931) Modern architecture.…Kahn lectures for 1930. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  64. Wright FL (1941) Studies and executed buildings. In: Gutheim FA (ed) Frank Lloyd Wright on architecture. Duell/Sloan and Pearce, New York, pp 59–76Google Scholar
  65. Wright FL (1943) An autobiography. Duell/Sloan & Pearce, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Wright FL (1953) The future of architecture. Horizon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Wright FL (1954) The natural house. Horizon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. Wright FL (1966) Frank Lloyd Wright, his life, his work, his words. Horizontal, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiu-Shui Chan
    • 1
  1. 1.Architecture DepartmentIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations