Measuring the Student’s Success Rate Using a Constraint Based Multi-modal Virtual Assembly Environment

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8853)


Personnel Training is considered as the most important prerequisite in the assembly operations of any kind of equipment/apparatus ranging from simple nut-bolt assembly to complex equipment (e.g., aircraft engine) assembly. This paper presents a novel Virtual Reality Training System (VRTS) for the constraint based assembly of a 3phase step down transformer. The ARToolKit [1] markers are used for interaction with the VRTS. The system improves the technical skills of students in the real assembly environment. The analysis shows that the average success rate of untrained students is 35.7% while that of trained students increased to 81.5%.


Virtual assembly environment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kato, H.: How does ARToolKit work?, ARToolKit Documentation (2/4/14).
  2. 2.
    Mikropoulos, T.A., Natsis, A.: Educational virtual environments: A ten-year review of empirical research (1999–2009). Computers & Education 56, 769–780 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jou, M., Wang, J.: Investigation of effects of virtual reality environments on learning performance of technical skills. Comput. Hum. Behav. 29, 433–438 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mantovani, F., Castelnuovo, G., Gaggioli, A., Riva, G.: Virtual reality training for health-care professionals. CyberPsychology & Behavior 6, 389–395 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Riva, G.: Applications of virtual environments in medicine. Methods of Information in Medicine 42, 524–534 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Merchant, Z., Goetz, E.T., Cifuentes, L., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., Davis, T.J.: Effectiveness of virtual reality-based instruction on students’ learning outcomes in K-12 and higher education: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education 70, 29–40 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, C.J., Toh, S.C., Ismail, W.M.F.W.: Are learning styles relevant to virtual reality? Journal of Research on Technology in Education 38, 123–141 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wong, B., Ng, B., Clark, S.: Assessing the effectiveness of animation and virtual reality in teaching operative dentistry. Journal of Dentistry 1 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heilig, M.: Sensorama simulator. united state patent office (3,050,870) (Patented August 28, 1962)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hawkins, D.G.: Virtual reality and passive simulators: the future of fun. L. Erlbaum Associates Inc., Hillsdale (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Youngblut, C.: Educational uses of virtual reality technology. IDA Document D-2128, i.o. d. analysis, ed., Alexandria (1998)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ng, F.M., Ritchie, J.M., Simmons, J.E.L., Dewar, R.G.: Designing cable harness assemblies in virtual environments. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 107, 37–43 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Angelov, A.N., Styczynski, Z.A.: Computer-aided 3D Virtual Training in Power System Education. In: Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 1–4. IEEE (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang, Y., Cui, S., Yang, Y., Lian, J.-a.: Virtual Reality Mathematic Learning Module for Engineering Students. Technology Interface Journal 10 (Fall 2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pasqualotti, A., Freitas, C.M.S.: MAT3D: A Virtual Reality Modeling Language Environment for the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics. CyberPsychology & Behavior 5, 409–422 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Savage, C., McGrath, D., McIntyre, T., Wegener, M., Williamson, M.: Teaching Physics Using Virtual Reality. In: American Institute of Physics Conference Series, pp. 126–129 (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaufmann, H., Meyer, B.: Simulating educational physical experiments in augmented reality. In: SIGGRAPH Asia 2008 ACM SIGGRAPH ASIA 2008 Educators Programme. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dede, C., Salzman, M.C., Loftin, R.B., Sprague, D.: Multisensory Immersion as a Modeling Environment for Learning Complex Scientific Concepts. In: Feurzeig, W., Roberts, N., (eds.) Modeling and Simulation in Science and Mathematics Education Modeling Dynamic Systems, pp. 282–319. Springer, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Loftin, R., Bowen, M.E., Benedetti, R.: Applying virtual reality in education: A prototypical virtual physics laboratory. In: Proceedings of the IEEE 1993 Symposium on Research Frontiers in Virtual Reality, pp. 67–74. IEEE Computer Society Press (1993)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Crosier, J.K., Cobb, S.V.G., Wilson, J.R.: Experimental comparison of virtual reality with traditional teaching methods for teaching radioactivity. Education and Information Technologies 5, 329–343 (2000)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang, Y., Travis, A.R.L., Collings, N.: Evaluation of Multi-sensory Feedback on the Usability of a Virtual Assembly Environment. Journal of Multimedia 2 (February 2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yao, Y.X., Xia, P.J., Liu, J.S., Li, J.G.: A pragmatic system to support interactive assembly planning and training in an immersive virtual environment (I-VAPTS). Int J Adv Manuf Technol 30, 959–967 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bryson, S.: Virtual Reality in Scientific Visualization. Communications of the ACM 39(5) (1996)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunne, C.J.R., McDonald, C.L.: Pulse!!: A Model for Research and Development of Virtual-Reality Learning in Military Medical Education and Training MILITARY MEDICINE 175 (July Supplement 2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huang, H.-M., Liaw, S.-S., Lai, C.-M.: Exploring learner acceptance of the use of virtual reality in medical education: a case study of desktop and projection-based display systems, Interactive Learning Environments. Interactive Learning Environments (2013)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nicholson, D.T., Chalk, C., Funnell, W.R.J., Daniel, S.J.: Can virtual reality improve anatomy education? A randomised controlled study of a computer-generated three-dimensional anatomical ear model. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health 40, 1081–1087 (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mikropoulos, T.A., Katsikis, A., Nikolou, E., Tsakalis, P.: Virtual environments in biology teaching. Journal of Biological Education 37, 176–181 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shima, Kew-Cheol: J.-S.P., Hyun-Sup Kima, Jae-Hyun Kima, Young-Chul Parka, Hai-Il Ryua Application of virtual reality technology in biology education. Journal of Biological Education 37, 71–74 (2003)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bakasa, C., Mikropoulos, T.: Design of virtual environments for the comprehension of planetary phenomena based on students ideas. International Journal of Science Education 25, 949–967 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hornecker, E., Psik, T.: Using ARToolKit Markers to Build Tangible Prototypes and Simulate Other Technologies. In: Costabile, M.F., Paternó, F. (eds.) INTERACT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3585, pp. 30–42. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and ITUniversity of MalakandChakdaraPakistan

Personalised recommendations