Ureteropyeloscopic Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Malignancy
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The treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial malignancy has paralleled similar therapies in the lower urinary tract. The majority of bladder tumors that are superficial, non-invasive, and low grade in histology are treated endoscopically, not with extirpative surgery. Prohibitive factors historically with regard to treating upper tract lesions endoscopically have been the large size and poor directability of the original ureteroscopes and the limited efficacy and availability of energy sources to treat these lesions. This has evolved as endoscopic instrumentation has improved. Endoscope miniaturization with improved mechanics have allowed for complete inspection of the entire upper urinary tract, and the application of various wavelengths of laser light energy employed to both coagulate and resect upper tract urothelial tumors have remarkably changed how these lesions are treated.
KeywordsLower Urinary Tract High Grade Lesion Extirpative Surgery Intramural Segment Ureteroscopic Treatment
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