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The Joint History of Tróia Peninsula and Sado Ebb-Delta

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Sand and Gravel Spits

Part of the book series: Coastal Research Library ((COASTALRL,volume 12))

Abstract

Traditionally, the study of coastal evolution has focused on emergent barriers or stratigraphic sequences on the adjacent shelf, but seldom are these two systems studied holistically or the information combined into a single model. Here, we combine data sets from the emerged and submerged sectors of a prograding coast, from the coastal dune to the innermost continental shelf, to reconstruct the long-term history of shelf reworking and spit elongation of Tróia Peninsula in Portugal. This analysis involves synthesizing high-resolution reflection seismic profiles from the shoreface, Ground Penetrating Radar images from the emerged sand barrier, high resolution digital terrain models, and Optically Stimulated Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of sediment samples from the emergent sand barrier and backbarrier. The results document the growth of the sandy peninsula in five major phases of progradation represented by massive foredunes separated by hiatuses of sedimentation and periods of shoreline stability. Formation of the peninsula began circa 6,500 years ago by spit elongation from the south as documented by the oldest beach sediments within the spit. The spit enlarged until a tidal inlet was formed around 3,300 years ago, which caused the construction of the ebb-tidal delta. The latter sequestrated the sand supplied to the spit inhibiting spit progradation until the ebb delta reached an equilibrium volume, allowing shoreline progradation out of phase with delta enlargement. Hiatuses in spit progradation are tentatively related to the onset of erosive conditions caused by enhanced storminess around 4,000 and 1,800 years ago and to a tsunami 250 years ago. These results suggest that the growth of the spit is largely controlled by self-adjustment processes and/or major climate shifts.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Gabriel Menezes, Marco Ferraz and Rita González for their participation during fieldwork. This research was founded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) through the projects SCARPS (PTDC/CTE-GIX/101466/2008). Susana Costas thanks the FCT for financial support through the program Ciência-2007.

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Costas, S., Rebêlo, L., Brito, P., Burbidge, C.I., Prudêncio, M.I., FitzGerald, D. (2015). The Joint History of Tróia Peninsula and Sado Ebb-Delta. In: Randazzo, G., Jackson, D., Cooper, J. (eds) Sand and Gravel Spits. Coastal Research Library, vol 12. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13716-2_6

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