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Evaporites pp 1187-1302 | Cite as

Non-Potash Salts: Borates, Na-Sulphates, Na-Carbonate, Lithium Salts, Gypsum, Halite and Zolites

  • John K. Warren

Abstract

In  Chap. 11 we focused on potash deposits and concluded that the larger accumulations of potash that dominate the rock record are marine-derived. That is, the larger potash deposits that are conventionally mined across the world accumulated in ancient tectonic (megahalite) basins with no Quaternary counterpart. We shall now discuss various accumulations of other evaporite salts and related products that are exploited as economic resources, namely the borates, Na-carbonates, Na-sulphates, lithium salts and zeolites, along with short considerations of exploited gypsum and halite deposits (Table 12.1). Other than gypsum and halite, they are typically lacustrine precipitates or brine products, formed by the evaporation of waters with nonmarine ionic proportions and in supra-sealevel depositional settings that do have same-scale pre-Quaternary counterparts (Warren 2010). The marine-derived megahalite and megasulphate deposits, which have no same-scale modern counterparts, were the focus of much of the discussion in earlier chapters. Aspects of these halite and gypsum deposits are only mentioned in passing in this chapter, via a discussion of their annual production volumes and uses, but they are the highest ranked deposits in terms of the weight utilized as mineable or extractable natural resources (Table 12.2). Next in terms of extracted volume is soda ash, then the potash salts, then with an order of magnitude less is salt cake and the borate salts.

Keywords

Great Salt Lake Native Sulphur Lake Brine Saline Lacustrine Salt Cake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • John K. Warren
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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