Better Procedures for Fairer Outcomes: Can Youth Quotas Increase Our Chances of Meeting the Demands of Intergenerational Justice?
In this chapter, I put forward an instrumental justification for the introduction of youth quotas in parliament on grounds of justice between co-existing generations. I provide a two-fold argument drawing on the distinction between ‘substantive representation’ and ‘symbolic representation’. I argue that these jointly provide a good basis for a ‘politics of youth presence’ in parliaments. The chapter is in three parts. In the first section, I evaluate the impact that youth quotas can have on enhancing the chances of intergenerationally fair policies being implemented (substantive representation). In the second section, I show that youth quotas can play an important symbolic role in the promotion of a community of political equals, with potential implications for youth political participation (symbolic representation). In the third section, I introduce an original distinction between two kinds of quotas: cohort and age quotas. I show that this distinction is often hidden behind the use of the phrase ‘youth quotas’ and argue that both kinds of quotas should be seriously considered.
KeywordsAge Groups Birth Cohorts Intergenerational Justice Politics of Presence Substantive Representation Descriptive Representation Symbolic Representation Essentialism
- Berry, C. (2012). The rise of gerontocracy? Addressing the intergenerational democratic deficit. London: Intergenerational Foundation.Google Scholar
- Bidadanure, J. (2012). Short-sightedness in youth welfare provision: The case of RSA in France. Intergenerational Justice Review, 1, 22–28.Google Scholar
- Buckingham, D. (2012). Reading the Riots Acts. Discourse, communication and conversation, Loughborough University, March.Google Scholar
- Chauvel, L. (1998). Le destin des générations. Paris: PUF.Google Scholar
- Cracknell, R., McGuinness F., & Rhodes C. (2011). General election 2010: Research paper. House of Commons Library.Google Scholar
- Daniels, N. (1988). Am I my parents’ keeper? An essay on justice between the young and the old. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Gosseries, A. (2007). Discrimination par l’age. In V. Bourdeau & R. Merrill (Eds.), http://www.dicopo.fr/spip.php?article40. Accessed July 2014.
- Griffith, M. (2011). Hoarding of housing: The intergenerational crisis in the housing market. London: Intergenerational Foundation. http://www.if.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/IF_Housing_Defin_Report_19oct.pdf. Accessed July 2014.
- Haute Autorite de Lutte Contre les Discriminations. (2008). NOTE RSA/200 8/5161/001.Google Scholar
- Howker, E., & Malik S. (2010). Jilted generation: How Britain has bankrupted its youth. London: Icon Books.Google Scholar
- Intergenerational Foundation. (2012). http://www.if.org.uk/. Accessed July 2014
- Jones, O. (2011). Chavs: The demonization of the working class. London: Verso.Google Scholar
- Leach, J. (2011). The poor perception of younger people in the UK. London: Intergenerational Foundation. http://www.if.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/The_Poor_Perception_of_Younger_People_in_the_UK_17Aug3.pdf. Accessed July 2014.
- Parkinson, J. (2009). Being the UK’s youngest MP. BBC news, 02.01.2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7788472.stm.
- Philips, A. (1995). The politics of presence. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
- Scanlon, T. (1986). The significance of choice. Tanner lectures on human values. Oxford UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Tremmel, J. (Ed.) (2006). Handbook of intergenerational justice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Van Parijs, P. (1995). Real freedom for all. What (if anything) can justify capitalism? Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
- Willetts, D. (2010). The Pinch, How the baby boomers took their children’s future—and why they should give it back. London: Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
- Williams, M. (1998). Voice, trust, and memory: Marginalised groups and the failings of liberal representation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar