Advertisement

Sand Mining, Channel Bar Dynamics and Sediment Textural Properties of the Kaveri River, South India: Implications on Flooding Hazard and Sustainability of the Natural Fluvial System

  • Mu. RamkumarEmail author
  • K. Kumaraswamy
  • R. Arthur James
  • M. Suresh
  • T. Sugantha
  • L. Jayaraj
  • A. Mathiyalagan
  • M. Saraswathi
  • J. Shyamala
Chapter
Part of the Springer Earth System Sciences book series (SPRINGEREARTH)

Abstract

The Kaveri River, the fourth largest river in India, undergoes the onslaught of urbanization and extensive construction activities within, along and adjoining its channel. In addition to its dwindling natural flow due to the failing monsoonal supply, and constructions of major, medium and minor dams, the extensive mining of sand from its channel bed causes severe stress on its natural fluvial processes. Reduction of carrying capacity of the channel, extensive vertical accretion of sediments within the channel, development of channel-in-channel physiography, and alteration of stream configuration and textural parameters of the stream bed sediments have contributed towards deterioration of the environmental integrity of this important river and exacerbated the flood hazard in the adjoining regions. This paper is an attempt to document the deterioration of natural fluvial dynamics due to the anthropogenic intervention and lack of required data for proper understanding for environmental management and sustenance of the fluvial system. The textural and geomorphic characteristics and the mechanism of mid-channel bar formation and stabilization documented through this study suggest that the whole of the river channel of the Kaveri River behaves like a braided bar/flood plain, which means  the prevalence of slow abandonment of the fluvial processes, that could only be observed in the flood plain region of mature and or old stage of a river and/or in the event of shifting of channel course. Occurrence of such characteristics at the upper deltaic region and the observation that the channel area gets converted into mid-channel bars (in terms of textural-geomorphic traits), at a rate of 1.08 km2/year warrant immediate measures for the restoration of natural fluvial processes.

Keywords

Environmental integrity Kaveri River Sand mining Channel bar Flooding 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Prof. Radhakrishnan, Department of Marine Sciences, Bharathidasan University is thanked for permission to utilize the sieve-shaker. Prof. V. Rajamani, School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, is thanked for enlightening the authors on the importance of conserving river and flood plain sediments for the sustenance of natural environment and mitigation of geohazards.

References

  1. Arun PR, Sreeja R, Sreebha S, Maya K, Padmalal D (2006) River sand mining and its impact on physical and biological environments of Kerala Rivers, Southwest Coast of India. Eco-chronicle 1:1–6Google Scholar
  2. Ashraf MA, Maah MJ, Yusoff I, Wajid A, Mahmood K (2011) Sand mining effects, causes and concerns: a case from the Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Sci Res Essay 6:1216–1231Google Scholar
  3. Banerji RK (1972) Stratigraphy and micropalaeontology of the Cauvery basin, Part I. Exposed area. J Palaeont Soc India 17:1–24Google Scholar
  4. Bull WB, Scott KM (1974) Impact of mining gravel from urban stream beds in the Southwestern United States. Geology 2:171–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carling PA (1984) Deposition of fine and coarse sand in an open-work gravel bed. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 41:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Central Water Commission (2007) Central water commission annual report. www.cwc.nic.in/main/webpages/dl_index.html
  7. Chakrapani GJ, Subramanian V (1990) Factors controlling sediment discharge in the Mahanadi River basin, India. J Hydrol 117:169–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. de Leeuw J, Shankmann D, Wu G, de Boer FW, Burnham J, He Q, Yesou H, Xiao J (2010) Strategic assessment of the magnitude and impacts of sand mining in Poyang Lake, China. Reg Environ Change 10:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dhanakumar S, Mohanraj R (2012) Fractionation of iron in river-bed sediments: Implications for the assessment of environmental integrity of the Cauvery delta region, India. In: Ramkumar M (ed) On the sustenance of Earth’s resources. Springer, Heidelberg (in press)Google Scholar
  10. Faber S (1993) The mississippi flood. Environment 35:2–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferrel RE, Hart GF, Swamy ASR, Bhanumurty P (1998) X-ray mineralogical discrimination of depositional environments of the Krishna delta, Peninsular India. J Sediment Petrol 54:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fidgett S (2003) River mining: planning guidelines for the management of river mining in developing countries with particular reference to Jamaica. Alliance Environment and Planning Ltd., NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  13. Fischer KJ (1994) Fluvial geomorphology and flood control strategies: Sacramento River, California. In: Schumm SA, Winkley BR (eds) The variability of large alluvial rivers. ASCE Press, New York, pp 115–138Google Scholar
  14. Friedman GM (1967) Dynamic processes and statistical parameters compared for size frequency distribution of beach and river sands. J Sediment Petrol 37:327–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glaister RP, Nelson HW (1974) Grain size distribution: an aid in facies classification. Bull Can Petrol Geol 22:203–240Google Scholar
  16. Goswami DC (1985) Brahmaputra River, Assam, India: Physiography, basin denudation, and channel aggradation. Water Resour Res 21:959–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gupta A (1988) Large floods as geomorphic events in the humid tropics. In: Baker VR, Kochel RC, Patton PC (eds) Flood geomorphology. Wiley, New York, pp 151–177Google Scholar
  18. Gupta A (1995) Magnitude, frequency and special factors affecting channel form and processes in the seasonal tropics. In: Costa JE, Mille AJ, Potter KW, Wilcock PR (eds) Natural and anthropogenic influences in fluvial geomorphology. American Geophysical Union, Geophys Monogr 89:125–136Google Scholar
  19. Harvey MD, Schumm SA (1987) Response of dry creek, California, to land use change, gravel mining, and dam closure. In: Proceedings of the international symposium erosion and sedimentation in the pacific rim. Corvallis, pp 451–460Google Scholar
  20. Hemalatha AC, Chandrakanth MG, Nagaraj N (2005) Effect of sand mining on groundwater depletion in Karnataka. In: Proceedings of the V international R&D conference of the central board of irrigation and power. Bengaluru, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  21. Hickey JT, Salas JD (1995) Environmental effects of extreme floods. In: US-Italy research workshop on the hydrometeorology, impacts, and management of extreme floods. Perugia, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  22. Ingram RL (1970) Sieve analysis. Procedures in sedimentary petrology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Inman DL (1952) Measures for describing size of sediments. J Sediment Petrol 19:125–145Google Scholar
  24. Jacobsen RB, Oberg KA (1993) Geomorphic changes in the Mississippi River floodplain at Miller City, IL as a result of the flood of 1993, US geological survey circular 1120-J, US Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  25. Jain V, Sinha R (2003) Geomorphological manifestations of the flood hazard: a remote sensing based approach. Geocarto Int 18:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kale VS, Ely LL, Enzel Y, Baker VR (1994) Geomorphic and hydrologic aspects of monsoon floods on the Narmada and Tapti Rivers in Central India. Geomorphology 10:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kale VS (2003a) Geomorphic effects of monsoon floods on Indian rivers. Nat Hazard 28:65–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kale VS (2003b) The spatio-temporal aspects of monsoon floods in India: implications for flood hazard management. In: Gupta HK (ed) Disaster management. University Press, Hyderabad, pp 22–47Google Scholar
  29. Kale VS (2004) Floods in India: their frequency and pattern. In: Valdiya KS (ed) Coping with natural hazards: Indian context. Orient Longman, Hyderabad, pp 91–103Google Scholar
  30. Kale VS (2005) Fluvial hydrology and geomorphology of monsoon-dominated Indian rivers. Rev Brasil Geomorfol 6:63–73Google Scholar
  31. Kale VS (2007) Geomorphic effectiveness of extraordinary floods on three large rivers of the Indian peninsula. Geomorphology 85:306–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kale VS, Hire PS (2007) Temporal variations in the specific stream power and total energy expenditure of a monsoonal river: the Tapti River, India. Geomorphology 92:134–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kale VS, Achyuthan H, Jaiswal MK, Sengupta S (2010) Palaeoflood records from upper Kaveri River, southern India: evidence for discrete floods during Holocene. Geochronometria 37:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kandaswamy PK (1986) Irrigation development in Tamil Nadu. Bhagirath 22:67–73Google Scholar
  35. Kondolf GM (1997) Hungry water: effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. Environ Manage 21:533–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kondolf GM, Swanson ML (1993) Channel adjustments to reservoir construction and instream gravel mining, Stony Creek, California. Environ Geol Water Sci 21:256–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kumarasamy P, Vignesh S, Muthukumar K, Arthur James R, Rajendran A (2009) Enumeration and identification of pathogenic pollution indicators in Cauvery River, South India. Res J Microbiol 4:540–549Google Scholar
  38. Lagasse PF, Simons DB, Winkley BR (1980) Impact of gravel mining on river system stability. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Div ASCE 106:389–404Google Scholar
  39. Limerinos JT (1970) Determination of the manning coefficient from measured bed roughness in natural channels. USGS Water Supply Paper 1898-B, 47 ppGoogle Scholar
  40. Macfarlane M, Mitchell P (2003) Scoping and assessment of the environmental and social of river mining in Jamaica. MERN working paper, University of Warwick, 87 ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Madhavaraju J, Ramasamy S, Ruffell A, Mohan SP (2002) Clay mineralogy of the late cretaceous and early tertiary successions of the Cauvery Basin (southeastern India): implications for sediment source and paleoclimate at the K/T boundary. Cret Res 23:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Madhavaraju J, Lee Y II, Armstrong-Altrin JS, Hussain SM (2006) Microtextures on detrital quartz grains of upper Maastrichtian-Danian rocks of the Cauvery Basin, Southeastern India: implications for provenance and depositional environments. Geosci J 10:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Masthan S (1978) Depositional environment of Kallamedu sandstone, Maastrichtian, Ariyalur area, south India. J Geol Mineral Met Soc India 15:61–70Google Scholar
  44. McGuire WD (1989) Healing thompson bend. Mo Conserv 50:24–27Google Scholar
  45. Mohan Raj R, Ravichandran A (2010) Study of soil microflora indicating pesticide contamination of Cauvery River belt in India. IndiaJ Sci Tech 3:80–82Google Scholar
  46. Moiola RJ, Weiser D (1968) Textural parameters: an evaluation. J Sediment Petrol 38:45–53Google Scholar
  47. Naiman RJ, Bilby RE (1998) River ecology and management in the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. In: Naiman RJ, Bilby RE (eds) River ecology and management: lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. Springer, New York, pp 1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S, Sreeja R (2008) Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest India. Environ Geol 54:879–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Passega R (1957) Texture as characteristic of clastic deposition. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 41:1952–1984Google Scholar
  50. Purohit J, Suthar CR (2012) Disasters statistics in Indian scenario in the last two decade. Int J Sci Res Pub 2:1–5Google Scholar
  51. Ramanathan AL, Vaithiyanathan P, Subramanian VK, Das BK (1994) Nature and transport of solute load in the Cauvery River basin, India. Water Res 28:1585–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ramasamy S, Banerji RK (1991) Geology, petrography and systematic stratigraphy of pre-Ariyalur sequence in Trichirapalli district, Tamil Nadu, India. J Geol Soc India 37:577–594Google Scholar
  53. Ramkumar M (1996) Evolution of Cauvery basin and tectonic stabilization of parts of South Indian shield—Insights from structural and sedimentologic data. J Geol Assoc Res Centre Misc Pub ln 4:1–15Google Scholar
  54. Ramkumar M (2000) Recent changes in the Kakinada spit, Godavari delta. J Geol Soc India 55:183–188Google Scholar
  55. Ramkumar M (2001) Sedimentary microenvironments of modern Godavari delta: characterization and statistical discrimination—towards computer assisted environment recognition scheme. J Geol Soc India 57:49–63Google Scholar
  56. Ramkumar M (2003) Progradation of the Godavari delta: a fact or empirical artifice? Insights from coastal and forms. J Geol Soc India 62:290–304Google Scholar
  57. Ramkumar M (2007) Spatio-temporal variations of sediment texture and their influence on organic carbon distribution in the Krishna estuary. India J Geochem 22:143–154Google Scholar
  58. Ramkumar M (2008) Cyclic fine-grained deposits with polymict boulders in Olaipadi member of the Dalmiapuram formation, Cauvery Basin, south India: plausible causes and sedimentation model. ICFAI J Earth Sci 2:7–27Google Scholar
  59. Ramkumar M (2009a) Types, causes and strategies for mitigation of geological hazards. In: Ramkumar M (ed) Geological hazards: causes, consequences and methods of containment. New India Publishers, New Delhi, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  60. Ramkumar M (2009b) Flooding—A manageable geohazard. In: Ramkumar M (ed) Geological hazards: causes, consequences and methods of containment. New India Publishers, New Delhi, pp 177–190Google Scholar
  61. Ramkumar M, Gandhi MS (2000) Beach rocks in the modern Krishna delta. J Geol Assoc Res Centre 8:22–34Google Scholar
  62. Ramkumar M, Vivekananda Murty M (2000) Distinction of sedimentary environments of the Godavari delta using geochemical and granulometric data through analysis of variance (ANOVA). India J Geochem 15:69–84Google Scholar
  63. Ramkumar M, Sudha Rani P, Gandhi MS, Pattabhi Ramayya M, Rajani Kumari V, Bhagavan KVS, Swamy ASR (2000a) Textural characteristics of coastal sedimentary environments of the modern Godavari delta. J Geol Soc India 56:471–487Google Scholar
  64. Ramkumar M, PattabhiRamayya M, Gandhi MS (2000b) Beach rock exposures at wave cut terraces of modern Godavari delta: their genesis, diagenesis and indications on coastal submergence and sealevel rise. India J Mar Sci 29:219–223Google Scholar
  65. Ramkumar M, Stüben D, Berner Z (2004) Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery basin, South India. Ann Geol Penins Balk 65:1–27Google Scholar
  66. Ramkumar M, Subramanian V, Stüben D (2005) Deltaic sedimentation during cretaceous period in the Northern Cauvery basin, South India: facies architecture, depositional history and sequence stratigraphy. J Geol Soc Ind 66:81–94Google Scholar
  67. Ramkumar M, Sugantha T, Rai J (2012) Facies and textural characteristics of the Kallamedu Formation, Ariyalur Group, Cauvery basin, South India: implications on cretaceous-tertiary boundary (KTB) events. In: Ramkumar M (ed) On the sustenance of Earth’s resources. Springer, Heidelberg (in press)Google Scholar
  68. Rao KN, Vaidyanathan R (1979) Evolution of the coastal landforms in the Krishna delta front, India. Trans Inst India Geogr 1:25–32Google Scholar
  69. Reineck HE, Singh IB (1982) Depositional sedimentary environments, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  70. Rogers P, Lydon P, Seckler D (1989) Eastern waters study: strategies to manage flood and draught in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin. ISPAN, USAID, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  71. Sacramento River Flood Control Project (2012) Flood control and geomorphic conditions. Report accessed on 07 July 2012, 112 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Sandecki M (1989) Aggregate mining in River systems. Calif Geol 42:88–94Google Scholar
  73. Sastry JS, Vethamony P, Swamy GN (1991) Morphological changes at Godavari delta region due to waves, currents and associated physical processes. In: Vaidyanathan R (ed) Quaternary deltas of India. Mem Geol Soc India 22:139–151Google Scholar
  74. Scott KM (1973) Scour and fill in Tujunga Wash—a fan head valley in urban southern California—1969. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 732-BGoogle Scholar
  75. Selvakumar R, Venkataraman R, Sundaravaradarajan KR (2008) Effect of sand mining on economic performance of groundwater irrigation in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. Agric Econ Res Rev 21:183–190Google Scholar
  76. Sensarma S, Rajamani V, Tripathi JK (2008) Petrography and geochemical characteristics of the sediments of the small River Hemavati, Southern India: implications for provenance and weathering processes. Sediment Geol 205:111–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sharma A, Rajamani V (2000a) Weathering of gneissic rocks in the upper reaches of the Cauvery River, south India: implications to neotectonic of the region. Chem Geol 166:203–223Google Scholar
  78. Sharma A, Rajamani V (2000b) Major element, REE and other trace element behaviour in amphibolite weathering under semi-arid conditions in Southern India. J Geol 108:487–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sreebha S, Padmalal D (2011) Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment river in the Southwestern Coast of India. Environ Manage 47:130–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Singer MB, Aalto R, James LA (2008) Status of the lower Sacramento valley flood-control system within the context of its natural geomorphic setting. Nat Hazard Rev 9:104–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Singh P, Rajamani V (2001a) REE geochemistry of recent clastic sediments from the Kaveri floodplains, southern India: implication to source area weathering and sedimentary processes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 65:3093–3108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Singh P, Rajamani V (2001b) Geochemistry of the floodplain sediments of the Kaveri River, southern India. J Sediment Res 71:50–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh IB, Swamy ASR (1996) Modern deltas. Andhra University, VisakhapatnamGoogle Scholar
  84. Sinha R (1996) Channel avulsion and floodplain structure in the Gandak-Kosiinterfan, north Bihar plains, India. Zeit Geomorphol NF Suppl-Bd 103:249–268Google Scholar
  85. Sinha R (1998) On the controls of fluvial hazards in the north Bihar Plains, eastern India. In: Maund JG, Eddleston M (ed) Geohazard Eng Geol 15:35–40Google Scholar
  86. Shroba RR, Schmidt PW, Crosby EJ, Hansen WR (1979) Geologic and geomorphic effects in the Big Thompson Canyon area, Larimer County: Part B in the Storm and flood of July 31 Aug 1, 1976 in the Big Thompson River and Cache La Poudre River Basins, Larimer and Weld counties, Colorado. US Geological survey (GS Professional Paper 1115), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  87. Shu L, Finlayson B (1993) Flood management on the lower Yellow River: hydrological and geomorphological perspectives. Sediment Geol 85:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sonak S, Pangam P, Sonak M, Mayekar D (2006) Impact of sand mining on local ecology. In: Sonak S (ed) Multiple dimensions of global environmental change. Teri Press, New Delhi, pp 101–121Google Scholar
  89. Stevens MA, Urbonas B, Tucker LS (1990) Public- private cooperation protects river. APWA Reporter, 25–27 Sept 1990Google Scholar
  90. Stewart HB Jr (1958) Sedimentary reflections on depositional environment in San Migne lagoon, Baja California, Mexico. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 42:2567–2618Google Scholar
  91. Swamy ASR, Rao MP, Rao BK (1990) Sediment characteristics of the modern deltas of the East coast of India. In: Proceedings of the international conference Asian marine geology, Beijing, pp 251–265Google Scholar
  92. Swank WT, Vose JM, Elliott KJ (2001) Long-term hydrological and water quality responses following commercial clear cutting of mixed hardwoods on a southern Appalachian catchment. Forest Ecol Manage 143:163–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Thirukumaran V, Ramkumar M (2009) Quicksand: a lesser-known geohazard but not a lesser-evil. In: Ramkumar M (ed) Geological hazards: causes, consequences and methods of containment. New India Publishers, New Delhi, pp 219–223Google Scholar
  94. Thorleifson H, Brooks G, Hanuta I, Kroker S, Matile G, Nielsen E, Prévost C, Rannie W (1998) Red River flooding: evolutionary geomorphic trends and evidence for major floods in recent centuries (NTS 62H/W); in manitoba energy and mines. Geol Serv Rep Activities 1998:186–195Google Scholar
  95. US Army Corps of Engineers (2012) A geomorphic enhancement for flood control. Accessed 07 July 2012Google Scholar
  96. Venkatesharaju K, Ravikumar P, Somashekar RK, Prakash KL (2010) Physico-chemical and bacteriological investigation on the River Cauvery of Kollegal stretch in Karnataka. Kathmandu University J Sci Eng Tech 6:50–59Google Scholar
  97. Venkatesha Raju K, Somashekar RK, Prakash KL (2012) Heavy metal status of sediment in river Cauvery, Karnataka. Environ Monitor Assess 184:361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vignesh S, Muthukumar K, SanthoshGokul M, Arthur James R (2012) Microbial pollution indicators in Cauvery River, Southern India. In: Ramkumar M (ed) On the sustenance of earth’s resources. Springer, Heidelberg (in press)Google Scholar
  99. Williams PB, Swanson ML (1989) A new approach to flood protection design and riparian management. USDA For Serv Gen Tech Rep PSW-110:40–46Google Scholar
  100. Zimmermann B, Elsenbeer H, de Moraes JM (2006) The influence of land-use changes on soil hydraulic properties: implications for runoff regeneration. Forest Ecol Manage 222:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mu. Ramkumar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • K. Kumaraswamy
    • 3
  • R. Arthur James
    • 4
  • M. Suresh
    • 2
  • T. Sugantha
    • 2
  • L. Jayaraj
    • 2
  • A. Mathiyalagan
    • 2
  • M. Saraswathi
    • 2
  • J. Shyamala
    • 2
  1. 1.South East Asia Carbonate LaboratoryUniversiti Teknologi PetronasTronohMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyPeriyar UniversitySalemIndia
  3. 3.Department of GeographyBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirapalliIndia
  4. 4.Department of Marine ScienceBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirapalliIndia

Personalised recommendations