Utilization of Exercise Difficulty Rating by Students for Recommendation

  • Martin LabajEmail author
  • Mária Bieliková
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8699)


Recommendation plays a vital role in adaptive educational systems. Learners often face large body of educational materials including not only texts (explanations), but also interactive content such as exercises and questions. These require various knowledge levels of multiple topics. For effective learning, personalized recommendation of the most appropriate items according to the learner’s current knowledge level and preferences is an essential feature. In this paper, we describe a learning object recommendation method based on students’ explicit difficulty ratings during and after exercise/question solving. It is based on comparing the learner’s state when the recommendation is to be made against his peers with similar knowledge in the moment when they rated the difficulty. To deal with sparsity of ratings that are even further filtered, we also propose two solutions to either adaptively elicit ratings in appropriate moments during learners work, or to predict ratings from implicit user actions. We evaluate the method in ALEF – adaptive web-based educational system.


Learning object difficulty Exercise difficulty rating Personalized recommendation Rating prediction Learning network 



This work was partially supported by grants. No. VG1/0971/11, KEGA 009STU-4/2014, and APVV-0233-10. We thank Matej Noga for recommender method implementation in ALEF system.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Informatics and Information TechnologiesSlovak University of Technology in BratislavaBratislavaSlovakia

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