A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Learning Languages with Mobile Devices

  • Yi-Shian LeeEmail author
  • Yao-Ting Sung
  • Kuo-En Chang
  • Tzu-Chien Liu
  • Wei-Cheng Chen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8699)


Language learning has undergone rapid changes over the past several years from computer-assisted learning to more recently, mobile devices. Mobile devices have become useful learning tools that can potentially be applied in both various settings. This study adopted 44 peer-reviewed journal articles published between from 1993 to 2013 to demonstrate that mobile assisted language instruction provided meaningful average improvement with an overall mean effect size of 0.54. The current analyses revealed few statistically significant findings when applied into some moderators.


Mobile-assisted language learning Meta-analysis Ubiquitous learning 


  1. 1.
    Attewell, J., Webster, T.: Engaging and supporting mobile learners. In: Proceedings of M-Learning 2004: Mobile Learning Anytime Everywhere, London, pp. 15–20 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chinnery, G.M.: Emerging technologies going to the mall: mobile assisted language learning. Lang. Learn. Technol. 10(1), 9–16 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Norris, C., Soloway, E.: Envisioning the handheld centric classroom. J. Educ. Comput. Res. 30(4), 281–294 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tatar, D., Roschelle, J., Vahey, P., Penuel, W.: Handhelds go to school. IEEE Comput. 36(9), 30–37 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frohberg, D., Goth, C., Schwabe, G.: Mobile learning projects – a critical analysis of the state of the art. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 25(4), 307–331 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fleischer, H.: What is our current understanding of one-to-one computer projects: a systematic narrative research review. Educ. Res. Rev. 7(2), 107–122 (2012)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Godwin-Jones, R.: Emerging technologies mobile apps for language learning. Lang. Learn. Technol. 15(2), 2–11 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kukulska-Hulme, A., Shield, L.: An overview of mobile assisted language learning: from content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction. ReCALL 20(3), 271–289 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., Razavieh, A.: Introduction to research in education, 6th edn. Wadsworth, Belmont (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Best, J.W., Kahn, J.V.: Research in Education, 9th edn. Allyn and Bacon, Boston (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cohen, L., Manion, L., Morrison, K.: Research methods in Education, 5th edn. Routledge Falmer, London (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lipsey, M.W., Wilson, D.B.: Practical Meta-Analysis. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lan, Y.J., Sung, Y.T., Chang, K.E.: A mobile-device-supported peer-assisted learning system for collaborative early EFL reading. Lang. Learn. Technol. 11(3), 130–151 (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lan, Y.J., Sung, Y.T., Chang, K.E.: Let us read together: development and evaluation of a computer-assisted reciprocal early English reading system. Comput. Educ. 53(4), 1188–1198 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zurita, G., Nussbaum, M.: Computer supported collaborative learning using wirelessly interconnected handheld computers. Comput. Educ. 42(3), 289–314 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borenstein, M., Hedges, L.V., Higgins, J.P.T., Rothstein, H.R.: Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Wiley, Chichester (2009)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bernard, R.M., Abrami, P.C., Lou, Y., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., Wallet, P.A., Fiset, M., Huang, B.: How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Rev. Educ. Res. 74(3), 379–439 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cohen, J.: Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edn. Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1988)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi-Shian Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yao-Ting Sung
    • 2
  • Kuo-En Chang
    • 3
  • Tzu-Chien Liu
    • 4
  • Wei-Cheng Chen
    • 5
  1. 1.Aim for the Top University Project OfficeNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Educational Psychology and CounselingNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Information and Computer EducationNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Graduate Institute of Learning and InstructionNational Central UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  5. 5.Research Center for Psychological and Educational TestingNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations