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Polymer-Assisted Cartilage and Tendon Repair

  • Gundula Schulze-TanzilEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Mechanical Engineering Series book series (MES)

Abstract

Intrinsic repair of traumatic cartilage injuries is generally poor; in a similar manner, the repair of ruptured tendons can be associated with unwanted results such as scar formation and altered biomechanical tissue properties. Therefore, further research utilizing tissue engineering (TE) techniques should help to reduce healing times and to restore natural structure of cartilage and tendon in response to injury. Natural and synthetic polymers play a pivotal role as artificial matrices for cartilage and tendon tissue engineering. Some TE-based therapeutical approaches have already found entry in the clinical praxis. This chapter discusses which peculiarities of cartilage and tendon have to be addressed for the use of synthetic polymers for TE, which kinds of polymers have been tested so far, and which unmet medical needs remain for cartilage and tendon TE. The important issue of reestablishing the tendon-to-bone interface for stable polymer-based TE tendon reconstruction strategies will also be discussed. Future directions for TE-assisted cartilage and tendon reconstruction are to develop biomimetic polymer scaffolds, to fully restore tissue zonality and achieve implant integration, mechanocompetence, and last but not least, to establish one step strategies for clinical application. Additionally, polymers could be used to help achieve more rapid expansion of chondrocyte and tenocyte numbers in culture, and for preculturing procedures.

Keywords

Cartilage repair Tendon repair Biomimetic polymers Tenogenesis Chondrogenesis 

Abbreviation List

2D

Two-dimensional

3D

Three-dimensional

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

COMP

Cartilage oligomeric protein

CS

Chondroitin sulfate

ECM

Extracellular matrix

FDA

Food and drug administration

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

GAG

Glycosaminoglycans

HA

Hyaluronan

HD

High-density culture

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

iPS

Induced pluripotent stem cells

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cells

PCL

Polycaprolacton

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PDS

Polydioxanone

PEG

Polyethylenglycol

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate

PGA

Polyglycolic acid

PLA

Polylactic acid

P(LLA-CL)

Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)

PTFE

Poly(tetrafluoro ethylene)

PUU

Polyurethran

PVA

Polyvinylalkohol

RGD

Arginin, glycin und asparaginsäure

SDF

Stromal cell-derived factor

TE

Tissue engineering

TGF

Transforming growth factor

Notes

Acknowledgment

The author is grateful to the support of Mr. Benjamin Kohl and Dr. Christiane Stoll.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic, Trauma and Reconstructive SurgeryCharité-University of Medicine Campus Benjamin FranklinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institute of AnatomyParacelsus Medical SchoolSalzburgAustria

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