Ligand–Receptor Interactions and Their Implications in Delivering Certain Signaling for Bone Regeneration
Cartilage and bone tissue formation is observed not only during embryonic development but also in some pathological conditions occurring after birth, including fracture healing. This process is regulated by many stimuli that are applicable to the reconstitution of skeletal tissues using tissue engineering. In particular, members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family play a unique and important role in skeletal tissue formation, wherein they activate specific intracellular signaling pathways by binding two types of serine–threonine kinase receptors and downstream effectors called Smad proteins. The biological activity of TGF-β family members is positively and negatively regulated at multiple steps by various molecules found in the extracellular space, on the cell membrane, and in the intracellular space. The modification of TGF-β family signaling pathways can be used in tissue engineering approaches for skeletal tissue formation.
KeywordsBone Morphogenetic Protein Osteoblastic Differentiation C2C12 Cell Demineralized Bone Matrix Ectopic Bone Formation
We thank the members of the Division of Pathophysiology, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University for their valuable comments and discussion. This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan and a Grant-in-Aid from the Support Project for the Formation of a Strategic Center in a Private University from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.
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