Advertisement

Near Field Flow Dynamics of Concentrate Discharges and Diffuser Design

  • Philip J. W. RobertsEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

The major physical aspects of near field mixing of dense jets resulting from diffuser discharges of concentrate are presented. It is proposed that any environmental impacts of such discharges will be local rather than regional, so initial mixing processes are an essential component of an effective disposal scheme. Typical international environmental criteria for concentrate are summarized; these can be readily met by well-designed diffusers. The major features of dense jets are presented, beginning with the simplest case of an inclined jet into deep stationary water, followed by the effects of shallow water. We then discuss merging jets from multiport and rosette diffusers and it is shown that their dynamic interaction can be critical and lead to significant changes in flow patterns and reduction in dilution. Design criteria are suggested to avoid impaired dilution. The effects of currents on single and multiport diffusers are then discussed. It is shown that small modifications in diffuser design can lead to significant changes in flow field and dilution. Some issues and difficulties with mathematical modeling of near field flows are discussed and how entrainment models may not adequately represent critical phenomena including dynamic jet and boundary interaction, re-entrainment, density current dynamics, and turbulence collapse. Finally, some open research issues are discussed.

Keywords

Current Speed Computational Fluid Dynamic Model Impact Point Rise Height Coanda Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to acknowledge and express his appreciation to Dr. Ozeair Abessi for his great expertise in tirelessly running many of the experiments discussed here and for many discussions on the mechanics of complex dense jet dynamics.

References

  1. Abessi, O., & Roberts, P. J. W. (2014a). Multiport diffusers for dense discharges. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 140(8).Google Scholar
  2. Abessi, O., & Roberts, P. J. W. (2014b). Effect of nozzle orientation on dense jets in stagnant environments. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (Submitted).Google Scholar
  3. Abessi, O., & Roberts, P. J. W. (2014c). Dense jet discharges in shallow water. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (Submitted).Google Scholar
  4. Blumberg, A. F., Ji, Z.-G., & Ziegler, C. K. (1996). Modeling outfall behavior using far field circulation model. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 122(11), 610–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi, K. W., & Lee, J. H. W. (2007). Distributed entrainment sink approach for modeling mixing and transport in the intermediate field. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 133(7), 804–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crimaldi, J. P. (2008). Planar laser induced fluorescence in aqueous flows. Experiments in Fluids, 44(6), 851–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davis, L., Davis, A., & Frick, W. (2004). Computational fluid dynamic application to diffuser mixing zone analysis—Case studies. In 3rd International Conference on Marine Wastewater Disposal MWWD 2004, Catania, Italy, September 27–October 2, 2004.Google Scholar
  8. Gungor, E., & Roberts, P. J. W. (2009). Experimental studies on vertical dense jets in a flowing current. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 135(11), 935–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hwang, R. R., & Chiang, T. P. (1995). Numerical simulation of vertical forced plume in a crossflow of stably stratified fluid. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 117, 696–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jiang, B., Law, A. W.-K., & Lee, J. H.-W. (2012). Mixing of 45° inclined dense jets in shallow coastal waters: surface impact dilution. Third International Symposium on Shallow Flows, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Jiang, B., Law, A. W.-K., & Lee, J. H.-W. (2014). Mixing of 30o and 45o inclined dense jets in shallow coastal waters. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 140(3), 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kikkert, G. A., Davidson, M. J., & Nokes, R. I. (2007). Inclined negatively buoyant discharges. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 133(5), 545–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koochesfahani, M. M., & Dimotakis, P. E. (1985). Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of mixed fluid concentration in a liquid plane shear layer. AIAA Journal, 23(11), 1700–1707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kwon, S. J., & Seo, I. W. (2005). Experimental investigation of wastewater discharges from a Rosette-type diffuser using PIV. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 9(5), 355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lai, A. C. H., & Lee, J. H. W. (2012). Dynamic interaction of multiple buoyant jets. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 708, 539–575.CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. Lane-Serff, G. F., Linden, P., & Hillel, M. (1993). Forced, angled plumes. J. Hazardous Materials, 33(1), 75–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lattemann, S., & Höpner, T. (2008). Environmental impact and impact assessment of seawater desalination. Desalination, 220(1–3), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Law, A. W.-K., Lee, C. C., & Qi, Y. (2002). CFD modeling of a multi-port diffuser in an oblique current. In MWWD2002, Istanbul, Turkey, September 16–20, 2002.Google Scholar
  19. Lindberg, W. R. (1994). Experiments on negatively buoyant jets, with and without cross-flow. In NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Recent Advances in Jets and Plumes” NATO ASI Series E (Vol. 255, pp. 131–145). Viana do Castelo, Portugal: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Marti, C. L., Antenucci, J. P., Luketina, D., Okely, P., & Imberger, J. (2011). Near-field dilution characteristics of a negatively buoyant hypersaline jet generated by a desalination plant. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 137(1), 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller, B. M., Glamore, W. C., Timms, W. A., & Pells, S. E. (2006). Physical modeling of desalination brine outlet, Perth (Stage 2). The University of New South Wales, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
  22. Miller, B., & Tarrade, L. (2010). Design considerations of outlet discharges for large seawater desalination projects in Australia. In 6th International Conference on Marine Wastewater Discharges, MWWD 2010, Langkawi, Malaysia, October 25–29, 2010.Google Scholar
  23. Muller, J., Seil, G., & Hubbert, G. (2011). Three modelling techniques used in Australia to model desalination plant brine dispersal in both the near-field and far-field. In International Symposium on Marine Outfall Systems, Mar del Plata, Argentina, May 15–19, 2011.Google Scholar
  24. Oliver, C. J., Davidson, M. J., & Nokes, R. I. (2008). k-ε predictions of the initial mixing of desalination discharges. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 8, 617–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Palomar, P., Lara, J. L., & Losada, I. J. (2012a). Near field brine discharge modeling part 2: Validation of commercial tools. Desalination, 290(0), 28–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Palomar, P., Lara, J. L., Losada, I. J., Rodrigo, M., & Alvárez, A. (2012b). Near field brine discharge modelling part 1: Analysis of commercial tools. Desalination, 290, 14–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pincince, A. B., & List, E. J. (1973). Disposal of brine into an estuary. Journal of WPCF, 45(11), 2335–2344.Google Scholar
  28. Roberts, P. J. W., Ferrier, A., & Daviero, G. J. (1997). Mixing in inclined dense jets. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 123(8), 693–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Roberts, P. J. W., & Abessi, O. (2014). Optimization of desalination diffusers using three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence. Final Report Prepared for United States Bureau of Reclamation. Georgia Tech, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  30. Roberts, D. A., Johnston, E. L., & Knott, N. A. (2010). Impacts of desalination plant discharges on the marine environment: A critical review of published studies. Water Research, 44(18), 5117–5128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Roberts, P. J. W., & Snyder, W. H. (1993). Hydraulic model study for the Boston Outfall. II: Environmental performance. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 119(9), 988–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roberts, P. J. W., Snyder, W. H., & Baumgartner, D. J. (1989). Ocean outfalls. I: Submerged wastefield formation. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 115(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roberts, P., Jenkins, S., Paduan, J., Schlenk, D., & Weis, J. (2012). Management of brine discharges to coastal waters: Recommendations of a science advisory panel. Environmental Review Panel (ERP). Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Costa Mesa, CA. Technical Report 694. http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/ocean/desalination/docs/dpr.pdf.
  34. Seil, G., & Zhang, Q. (2010). CFD modeling of desalination plant brine discharge systems. Water, September 2010. 79–83.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, R., Purnama, A., & Al-Barwani, H. H. (2007). Sensitivity of hypersaline Arabian Gulf to seawater desalination plants. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 31(10), 2347–2354.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. Sofianos, S., Johns, W. E., & Murray, S. (2002). Heat and freshwater budgets in the Red Sea from direct observations at Bab el Mandeb. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 49(7–8), 1323–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sotiropoulos, F. (2005). Introduction to statistical turbulence modeling for hydraulic engineering flows. In P. D. Bates, S. N. Lane, & R. I. Ferguson (Eds.), Computational fluid dynamics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Tang, H. S., Paik, J., Sotiropoulos, F., & Khangaonkar, T. (2008). Three-dimensional numerical modeling of initial mixing of thermal discharges at real-life configurations. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 134(9), 1210–1224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tarrade, L., & Miller, B. M. (2010). Physical modeling of the victorian desalination plant outfall. The University of New South Wales, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
  40. Tian, X., & Roberts, P. J. W. (2003). A 3D LIF system for turbulent buoyant jet flows. Experiments in Fluids, 35, 636–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tian, X., Roberts, P. J. W., & Daviero, G. J. (2004). Marine wastewater discharges from multiport diffusers I: Unstratified stationary water. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 130(12), 1137–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tian, X., & Roberts, P. J. W. (2011). Experiments on marine wastewater diffusers with multiport Rosettes. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 137(10), 1148–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang, X. Y., & Adams, E. E. (1999). Prediction of near field plume characteristics using a far field circulation model. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 125(3), 233–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Georgia Institute of TecnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations