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Histoplasmosis

  • L. Joseph WheatEmail author
  • Chadi A. Hage
Chapter
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

Histoplasmosis, among the endemic mycoses, is the leading cause for hospitalization and death in the USA. The infection is asymptomatic in most otherwise healthy individuals who experience low inoculum exposure, but may cause severe pneumonia following a heavy exposure. Patients with underlying obstructive pulmonary disease typically develop chronic pulmonary disease, which is progressive if not treated. Progressive disseminated disease may occur, usually in patients with underlying immunocompromised, and is generally fatal if not diagnosed and treated correctly.

The diagnosis can be established without difficulty in most patients by use of a battery of mycologic and serologic tests. Antigen detection is the most sensitive method for diagnosing acute diffuse pulmonary histoplasmosis, and progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. Serologic tests are helpful, particularly in patients with mild acute pulmonary and subacute pulmonary histoplasmosis.

Treatment is indicated in most patients with acute diffuse pulmonary histoplasmosis and all patients with chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis or progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. Liposomal amphotericin B is the treatment of choice for patients with severe manifestations of histoplasmosis requiring hospitalization. Itraconazole is recommended for mild cases not requiring hospitalization and for continued therapy following response to liposomal amphotericin B.

Keywords

Histoplasmosis Histoplasma Mycosis Endemic Itraconazole Amphotericin B Antigen detection Transplant Tumor necrosis factor AIDS 

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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MiraVista DiagnosticsIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Medicine DepartmentIndiana University School of Medicine; Thoracic Transplantation Program, Indiana University HealthIndianapolisUSA

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