Advertisement

Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence in Military Families

  • Amy M. Smith SlepEmail author
  • Richard E. Heyman
Chapter
  • 472 Downloads
Part of the Risk and Resilience in Military and Veteran Families book series (RRMV)

Abstract

How do military and civilian families compare with respect to maltreatment? This question has always been of interest, but interest has peaked in the context of the recent wars. This chapter reviews the literatures on (1) prevalence of different forms of maltreatment among military families and comparing military and civilian families, (2) risk factors for maltreatment among military and civilian families, (3) the effects of deployment on maltreatment among military families, and (4) noteworthy program and prevention efforts within the United States military. Implications for military and civilian communities are discussed.

Keywords

Intimate Partner Violence Child Maltreatment Child Physical Abuse Physical Intimate Partner Violence Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Black, M. C., & Merrick, M. T. (2013). Prevalence of intimate partner violence, stalking, and sexual violence among active duty women and wives of active duty men—Comparisons with women in the U.S. General Population, 2010. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Downloaded from http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA582205.Google Scholar
  2. Bray, R. M., & Marsden, M. E. (2000). Trends in substance use among US military personnel: The impact of changing demographic composition. Substance Use & Misuse, 35, 949–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34, 844–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dettlaff, A. J., Rivaux, S. L., Baumann, D. J., Fluke, J. D., Rycraft, J. R., & James, J. (2011). Disentangling substantiation: The influence of race income and risk on the substantiation decision in child welfare. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1630–1637. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Drake, B., Jonson-Reid, M., Way, I., & Chung, S. (2003). Substantiation and recidivism. Child Maltreatment, 8, 248–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dubanoksi, R. A., & MacIntosh, S. R. (1984). Child abuse and neglect in military and civilian families. Child Abuse and Neglect, 8, 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dutton, D. G. (1985). An ecologically nested theory of male violence toward intimates. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 404–413.Google Scholar
  8. Eckenrode, J., Munsch, J., Powers, J., & Doris, J. (1988). The nature and substantiation of official sexual abuse reports. Child Abuse Neglect, 12, 311–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. English, D. J., Marshall, D. B., Coghlan, L., Brummel, S., & Orme, M. (2002). Causes and consequences of the substantiation decision in Washington State Child Protective Services. Children and Youth Services Review, 24, 817–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Foran, H. M., Beach, S. R. H., Slep, A. M. S., Heyman, R. E., & Wamboldt, M. Z. (Eds.). (2013). Family problems and family violence: Reliable assessment and the ICD-11. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Foran, H. M., Heyman, R. E., Slep, A. M. S., & US Air Force Family Advocacy Program. (2011). Hazardous drinking and military community functioning: Identifying mediating risk factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 521–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gessner, R. R., & Runyan, D. K. (1995). The shaken infant: A military connection? Archives Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 149, 467–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gibbs, D. A., Martin, S. L., Kupper, L. L., & Johnson, R. E. (2007). Child maltreatment in enlisted soldiers’ families during combat-related deployments. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 528–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gumbs, G. R., Keenan, H. T., Sevick, C. J., Conlin, A. M. S., Lloyd, D. W., Runyan, D. K., … Smith, T. C. (2013). Infant abusive head trauma in a military cohort. Pediatrics, 132, 1–9.Google Scholar
  15. Heyman, R. E., Collins, P. S., Slep, A. M. S., & Knickerbocker, L. (2010). Evidence-based substantiation criteria: Improving the reliability of field decisions of child maltreatment and partner abuse. Protecting Children, 25, 35–46.Google Scholar
  16. Heyman, R. E., & Neidig, P. H. (1999). A comparison of spousal aggression prevalence rates in US Army and civilian representative samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heyman, R. E., & Schlee, K. A. (1997). Toward a better estimate of the prevalence of partner abuse: Adjusting rates based on the sensitivity of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heyman, R. E., & Slep, A. M. S. (2006). Creating and field-testing diagnostic criteria for partner and child maltreatment. Journal of Family Psychology, Special issue: Relational Disorders and Relational Processes in Mental Health, 20, 397–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heyman, R. E., & Slep, A. M. S. (2009). Reliability of family maltreatment diagnostic criteria: 41 site dissemination field trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 905–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heyman, R. E., & Slep, A. M. S. (2011). Estimating prevalences of sensitive problems from non-sensitive data. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 293–311. doi: 10.1177/0886260510362881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, R., Flaherty, E. G., Binns, H. J., Price, L. L., Slora, E., Abney, D., … Sege, R. D. (2008). Clinicians’ description of factors influencing their reporting of suspected child abuse: Report of the Child Abuse Reporting Experience Study Research Group. Pediatrics, 122, 259–266.Google Scholar
  22. Keenan, H. T., Runyan, D. K., Marshall, S. W., Nocera, M. A., Merten, D. F., & Sinal, S. H. (2003). A population based study of inflicted traumatic brain injury in young children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 621–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. King, G., Trocmé, N., & Thatte, N. (2003). Substantiation as a multitier process: The results of a NIS-3 analysis. Child Maltreatment, 8, 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee, J. A., Luxton, D. D., Reger, G. M., & Gahm, G. A. (2010). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory with a sample of soldiers previously deployed in support of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 813–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Linkh, D. J., Besetsny, L. K., Collins, P. S., Thomsen, C. J., Rabenhorst, M. M., Rosenbaum, A., & Milner, J. S. (2008). Suspected child and spouse maltreatment referral sources: Who reports child and spouse maltreatment to the Air Force Family Advocacy Program? Military Medicine, 173, 1203–1209.Google Scholar
  26. McCarroll, J. E., Fan, Z., Newby, J. H., & Ursano, R. J. (2008). Trends in US Army child maltreatment reports: 1990–2004. Child Abuse Review, 17, 108–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCarroll, J. E., Newby, J. H., Thayer, L. E., Ursano, R. J., Norwood, A. E., & Fullerton, C. S. (1999). Trends in child maltreatment in the US Army, 1975–1997. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23, 855–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCarroll, J. E., Thayer, L. E., Liu, X., Newby, J. H., Norwood, A. E., Fullerton, C. S., & Ursano, R. J. (2000). Spouse abuse recidivism in the US Army by gender and military status. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(3), 521.Google Scholar
  29. McCarroll, J. E., Ursano, R. J., Fan, Z., & Newby, J. H. (2004). Comparison of US Army and civilian substantiated reports of child maltreatment. Child Maltreatment, 9, 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McCarroll, J. E., Ursano, R. J., Liu, X., Thayer, L. E., Newby, J. H., Norwood, A. E., & Fullerton, C. S. (2000). Deployment and the probability of spousal aggression by U.S. Army soldiers. Military Medicine, 165, 41–44.Google Scholar
  31. McCarroll, J. E., Ursano, R. J., Newby, J. H., Liu, X., Fullerton, C. S., Norwood, A. E., & Osuch, E. A. (2003). Domestic violence and deployment in U.S. Army soldiers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 3–9. doi: 10.1097/00005053-200301000-00002.Google Scholar
  32. McCarthy, R. J., Rabenhorst, M. M., Milner, J. S., Travis, W. J., & Collins, P. S. (2014). What difference does a day make? Examining temporal variations in partner maltreatment.Google Scholar
  33. McCarthy, R. J., Rabenhorst, M. M., Thomsen, C. J., Milner, J. S., Travis, W. J., Copeland, C. W., & Foster, R. E. (2015). Child maltreatment among civilian parents before, during, and after deployment in United States Air Force families. Psychology of Violence, 5, 26.Google Scholar
  34. Merrill, L. L., Newell, C. E., Thomsen, C. J., Gold, S. R., Milner, J. S., Koss, M. P., & Rosswork, S. G. (1999). Childhood abuse and sexual revictimization in a female Navy recruit sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 211–225.Google Scholar
  35. Mollerstrom, W. W., Patchner, M. A., & Milner, J. S. (1995). Child maltreatment: The United States Air Force’s response. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Newby, J. H., McCarroll, J. E., Ursano, R. J., Fan, Z., Shigemura, J., & Tucker-Harris, Y. (2005). Positive and negative consequences of a military deployment. Military Medicine, 170, 815–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Chamberlin, R., & Tatelbaum, R. (1986). Preventing child abuse and neglect: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 78, 65–78.Google Scholar
  38. Pan, H. S., Neidig, P. H., & O’Leary, K. D. (1994). Predicting mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 975–981. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.62.5.975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rabenhorst, M. M., McCarthy, R. J., Thomsen, C. J., Milner, J. S., Travis, W. J., Foster, R. E., & Copeland, C. W. (2013). Spouse abuse among United States Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 754.Google Scholar
  40. Rabenhorst, M. M., Thomsen, C. J., Milner, J. S., Foster, R. E., Linkh, D. J., & Copeland, C. W. (2012). Spouse abuse and combat-related deployments in active duty Air Force couples. Psychology of Violence, 2, 273–284. doi: 10.1037/a0027094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Raiha, N. K., & Soma, D. J. (1997). Victims of child abuse and neglect in the US Army. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21, 759–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rentz, E. D., Marshall, S. W., Loomis, D., Casteel, C., Martin, S. L., & Gibbs, D. A. (2007). Effect of deployment on the occurrence of child maltreatment in military and nonmilitary families. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165, 1199–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rumm, P. D., Cummings, P., Krauss, M. R., Bell, M. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2000). Identified spouse abuse as a risk factor for child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24, 1375–1381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schumacher, J. A., Slep, A. M. S., & Heyman, R. E. (2001). Risk factors for male-to-female partner physical abuse. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 6, 281–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sedlak, A. J., Mettenburg, J., Basena, M., Petta, I., McPherson, K., Greene, A., & Li, S. (2010). Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS–4): Report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.Google Scholar
  46. Slep, A. M. S., Foran, H. M., Heyman, R. E., & Snarr, J. D. (2010). Unique risk and protective factors for partner aggression in a large scale Air Force survey. Journal of Community Health, 35, 375–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Slep, A. M. S., Foran, H. M., Heyman, R. E., & Snarr, J. (2011). Risk and protective factors for partner abuse in a large-scale Air Force survey. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 73, 486–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Slep, A. M. S., Foran, H. M., Heyman, R. E., & U.S. Air Force Family Advocacy Program. (2014). An ecological model of intimate partner violence at different levels of severity. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 470–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Slep, A. M. S., & Heyman, R. E. (2006). Creating and field-testing child maltreatment definitions: Improving the reliability of substantiation determinations. Child Maltreatment, 11, 217–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Slep, A. M. S., Heyman, R. E., Snarr, J. D., & USAF Family Advocacy Program. (2011). Child emotional aggression and abuse: Definitions and prevalence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 783–796.Google Scholar
  51. Snarr, J. D., Heyman, R. E., Slep, A. M. S., Malik, J., & USAF Family Advocacy Program. (2011). Preventive impacts of reliable family maltreatment criteria. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 826–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stander, V. A., Thomsen, C. J., Merrill, L. L., Rabenhorst, M. M., Crouch, J. L., & Milner, J. S. (2011). Gender and military contextual risk factors for intimate partner aggression. Military Psychology, 23, 639–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stith, S. M., Liu, T., Davies, L. C., Boykin, E. L., Alder, M. C., Harris, J. M., … Dees, J. E. M. E. G. (2009). Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 13–29. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.03.006Google Scholar
  54. Stith, S. M., & McMonigle, C. L. (2009). Risk factors associated with intimate partner violence. In D. J. Whitaker & J. R. Lutzker (Eds.), Preventing partner violence: Research and evidence-based intervention strategies (pp. 67–92). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stith, S., Smith, D., Penn, C., Ward, D., & Tritt, D. (2004). Intimate partner physical abuse perpetration and victimization risk factors: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 65–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tanielian, T. L., & Jaycox, L. (Eds.). (2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery, Vol. 1. Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  57. Thomsen, C. J., Rabenhorst, M. M., McCarthy, R. J., Milner, J. S., Travis, W. J., Foster, R. E., & Copeland, C. W. (2014). Child maltreatment before and after combat-related deployment among active-duty United States Air Force maltreating parents. Psychology of Violence, 4, 143–155.Google Scholar
  58. Travis, W. J., Collins, P. S., McCarthy, R. J., Rabenhorst, M. M., & Milner, J. S. (2014). Characteristics associated with incidents of family maltreatment among United States Air Force families. Military Medicine, 179, 1244–1249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Travis, W. J., Heyman, R. E., & Slep, A. M. S. (in press). Fighting the battle on the home front: Prevention and intervention of child maltreatment for the military family. Child Abuse & Neglect.Google Scholar
  60. Travis, W. J., Walker, M. H., Besetsny, L. K., McCarthy, R. J., Coley, S. L., Rabenhorst, M. M., & Milner, J. S. (2015). Identifying high-needs families in the United States Air Force New Parent Support Program. Military Behavioral Health. 3(1)74–82.Google Scholar
  61. Winefield, H. R., & Bradley, P. W. (1992). Substantiation of reported child abuse or neglect: Predictors and implications. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 661–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Family Translational Research Group, Department of Cariology and Comprehensive CareNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Family Translational Research Group, Cariology and Comprehensive CareNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations