Advertisement

Placing Fatherhood Back in the Study and Treatment of Military Fathers

  • David S. DeGarmoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Risk and Resilience in Military and Veteran Families book series (RRMV)

Abstract

This chapter argues that contemporary military fathers are best understood within a contextual family stress and social interaction learning model of parenting. The chapter begins with a review of father absence models, and their limitations, that have dominated historical research on military fathers. This milieu is then contrasted against contemporary fatherhood theory and research on father involvement, to better understand the contemporary demands and societal pressures for military fathers to effectively serve as distance fathers. The family stress model is then applied to discuss preventive intervention and treatment perspectives designed to promote healthy adjustment of military fathers and their family members. It is variation in individual differences in fathering behaviors, not the presence or absence of fathers that is central to research on military fathers.

Keywords

Father Involvement Interparental Conflict Father Absence Military Family Nonresidential Father 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Amato, P. R., & Gilbreth, J. G. (1999). Nonresident fathers and children’s well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 557–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amato, P. R., Meyers, C. E., & Emery, R. E. (2009). Changes in nonresident father–child contact from 1976–2002. Family Relations, 58(February), 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagner, D. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2003). Father involvement in parent training: When does it matter? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 337–342. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3204_13.Google Scholar
  4. Brockman, C., Snyder, J., Gewirtz, A., Gird, S. R., Quattlebaum, J., Schmidt, N., … DeGarmo, D. (2016). Relationship of service members’ deployment trauma, PTSD symptoms, and experiential avoidance to postdeployment family reengagement. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(1), 52–62. doi: 10.1037/fam0000152.Google Scholar
  5. Brotherson, S. E., Dollahite, D. C., & Hawkins, A. J. (2005). Generative fathering and the dynamics of connection between fathers and their children. Fathering, 3, 1–28. doi: 10.3149/fth.0301.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bullard, L., Wachlarowicz, M., DeLeeuw, J., Snyder, J., Low, S., Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2010). Effects of the Oregon Model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on marital adjustment in new stepfamilies: A randomized trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(4), 485–496. Doi: 10.1037/a0020267.Google Scholar
  7. Cabrera, N. J., Shannon, J. D., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. (2007). Fathers’ influence on their children’s cognitive and emotional development: From toddlers to pre-K. Applied Developmental Science, 11, 208–213. doi: 10.1080/10888690701762100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cabrera, N. J., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Bradley, R. H., Hofferth, S., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development, 71(1), 127–136. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Capaldi, D. M., & Patterson, G. R. (1991). Relation of parental transitions to boys’ adjustment problems: I. A linear hypothesis. II. Mothers at risk for transitions and unskilled parenting. Developmental Psychology, 27, 489–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chawla, N., & Solinas-Saunders, M. (2011). Military parent and child adjustment to separation and deployment. American Journal of Family Therapy, 39(3), 179–192. doi: 10.1080/01926187.2010.531647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clever, M., & Segal, D. R. (2013). The demographics of military children and families. The Future of Children, 23(2), 13–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coley, R. L., & Medeiros, B. L. (2007). Reciprocal longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement and adolescent delinquency. Child Development, 78(1), 132–147. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00989.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cowan, P. A., Cowan, C. P., & Knox, V. (2010). Marriage and fatherhood programs. Future of Children, 20, 205–230. doi: 10.1353/foc.2010.0000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cozza, S. J. (2011). Children of military service members: Raising national awareness of the family health consequences of combat deployment. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165(11), 1044–1046. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (2002). Effects of marital conflict on children: Recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(1), 31–63. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cummings, E. M., Goeke-Morey, M. C., & Raymond, J. (2004). Fathers in family context: Effects of marital quality and marital conflict. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (4th ed., pp. 196–221). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (1998). Exploring children’s emotional security as a mediator of the link between marital relations and child adjustment. Child Development, 69(1), 124–139. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06138.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis, L., Gewirtz, A. H., Zamir, O., DeGarmo, D. S., & Hanson, S. K., (in press). Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers’ parenting practices in the post-deployment environment. Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  19. DeGarmo, D. S. (2010a). Coercive and prosocial fathering, antisocial personality, and growth in children’s postdivorce noncompliance. Child Development, 81(2), 503–516. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01410.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeGarmo, D. S. (2010b). A time varying evaluation of identity theory and father involvement for full custody, shared custody, and no custody divorced fathers. Fathering, 8(2), 181–202. doi: 10.3149/fth.1802.181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeGarmo, D. S., & Forgatch, M. S. (2007). Efficacy of parent training for stepfathers: From playful spectator and polite stranger to effective stepfathering. Parenting: Science and Practice, 7, 331–355. doi: 10.1080/15295190701665631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DeGarmo, D. S., & Forgatch, M. S. (2012). A confidant support and problem solving model of divorced fathers’ parenting. American Journal of Community Psychology, 49, 258–269. doi: 10.1007/s10464-011-9437-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Department of Defense. (2013). 2013 Demographics: Profile of the military community. Washington, DC: Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Military Community and Family Policy).Google Scholar
  24. Dishion, T. J., Owen, L. D., & Bullock, B. M. (2004). Like father, like son: Toward a developmental model for the transmission of male deviance across generations. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1(2), 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2007). Intervening in children’s lives: An ecological, family-centered approach to mental health care. Washington, DC: APA Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doherty, W. J., Kouneski, E. F., & Erickson, M. F. (1998). Responsible fathering: An overview and conceptual framework. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doucet, A. (2004). Fathers and the responsibility for children: A puzzle and a tension. Atlantis: A Women’s Studies Journal, 28(2), 103–114.Google Scholar
  28. Fabiano, G. A., Chacko, A., Pelham, W. E., Robb, J. A., Walker, K. S., Wienke, A. L., … Pirvics, L. (2009). A comparison of behavioral parent training programs for fathers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Therapy, 40(2), 190–204. Doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2008.05.002.Google Scholar
  29. Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Cunningham, C. E., Yu, J., Gangloff, B., Buck, M., … Gera, S. (2012). A waitlist-controlled trial of behavioral parent training for fathers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(3), 337–345. Doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.654464.Google Scholar
  30. Flouri, E. (2010). Fathers’ behaviors and children’s psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(3), 363–369. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flouri, E., & Buchannan, A. (2004). Early father’s and mother’s involvement and child’s later educational outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(Pt. 2), 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2002). Extending and testing the social interaction learning model with divorce samples. In J. B. Reid, G. R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 235–256). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Forgatch, M. S., DeGarmo, D. S., & Beldavs, Z. G. (2005). An efficacious theory-based intervention for stepfamilies. Behavior Therapy, 36, 357–365. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80117-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Forgatch, M. S., & Patterson, G. R. (2010). The Oregon model of parent management training (PMTO): An intervention for antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. In J. R. Weisz & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 159–178). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  35. Garmezy, N. (1974). The study of competence in children at risk for severe psychopathology. In E. J. Anthony & C. Koupernik (Eds.), The child in his family: Children at psychiatric risk. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  36. Gearing, R., Colvin, G., Popova, S., & Regehr, C. (2008). Re: Membering fatherhood: Evaluating the impact of a group intervention on fathering. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 33(1), 22–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gershuny, J. (2000). Changing times: Work and leisure in postindustrial society. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gewirtz, A. H., Erbes, C., Polusny, M. A., Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2011). Helping families through the deployment process: Strategies to support parenting. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(1), 56–62. doi: 10.1037/a0022345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gewirtz, A. H., Polusny, M. A., DeGarmo, D. S., Khaylis, A., & Erbes, C. R. (2010). Posttraumatic stress symptoms among National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq: Associations with parenting behaviors and couple adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(5), 599–610. doi: 10.1037/a0020571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gregory, I. (1965). Anterospective data following childhood loss of a parent: Delinquency and high school dropout. Archives of General Psychiatry, 13(2), 99–109. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1965.01730020001001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hillenbrand, E. D. (1976). Father absence in military families. The Family Coordinator, 25, 451–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoeve, M., Dubas, J. S., Eichelsheim, V. I., van der Laan, P. H., Smeenk, W., & Gerris, J. R. M. (2009). The relationship between parenting and delinquency: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(6), 749–775. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9310-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoeve, M., Stams, G. J. J. M., Put, C. E., Dubas, J. S., Laan, P. H., & Gerris, J. R. M. (2012). A meta-analysis of attachment to parents and delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(5), 771–785. doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9608-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hofferth, S. L., Stueve, J. L., Pleck, J., Bianchi, S., & Sayer, L. (2002). The demography of fathers: What fathers do. In C. S. Tamis-LeMonda & N. Cabrera (Eds.), Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 63–90). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Hook, J. L., & Wolfe, C. M. (2012). New fathers? Residential fathers’ time with children in four countries. Journal of Family Issues, 33(4), 415–450. doi: 10.1177/0192513X11425779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2013). Returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan: Assessment of readjustment needs of veterans, service members, and their families. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  47. Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Tomas, M., Price, T. S., & Taylor, A. (2004). The limits of child effects: Evidence for genetically mediated child effects on corporal punishment but not on physical maltreatment. Developmental Psychology, 40(6), 1047–1058. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jaffee, S. R., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., & Taylor, A. (2003). Life with (or without) father: The benefits of living with two biological parents depend on the father’s antisocial behavior. Child Development, 74(1), 109–126. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jensen, P. S., Martin, D. J., & Watanabe, H. (1996). Children’s response to parental separation during Operation Desert Storm. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(4), 433–441. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199604000-00009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kelley, M. L. (1994). The effects of military-induced separation on family factors and child behavior. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64(1), 103–111. doi: 10.1037/h0079499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kelly, J. B., & Emery, R. E. (2003). Children’s adjustment following divorce: Risk and resilience perspectives. Family Relations, 52(4), 352–362. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2003.00352.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. King, V., & Sobolewski, J. M. (2006). Nonresident fathers’ contributions to adolescent well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(3), 537–557. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00274.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lamb, M. (1997). Fathers and child development: An introductory overview and guide. In M. Lamb (Ed.), The role of fathers in child development (3rd ed., pp. 1–19). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Lamb, M. E., & Lewis, C. (2013). Father–child relationships. In C. N. Cabrera & S. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), Handbook of father involvement (2nd ed., pp. 135–150). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Leidy, M. S., Schofield, T. J., & Parke, R. D. (2013). Fathers’ contributions to children’s social development. In N. J. Cabrera & C. S. Tamis-Lemonda (Eds.), Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 151–167). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Lester, P., Saltzman, W. R., Woodward, K., Glover, D., Leskin, G. A., & Bursch, B. (2012). Evaluation of a family-centered prevention intervention for military children and families facing wartime deployments. American Journal of Public Health, 102(Suppl. 1), S48–S54. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.300088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lewis, C., & Lamb, M. E. (2003). Fathers’ influences on children’s development: The evidence from twoparent families. European Journal of Psychology of Education, XVIII(2), 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lynn, D. B., & Sawrey, W. L. (1959). The effects of father absence on Norwegian boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 258–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. MacDermid, S. M., Roy, K., & Zvonkovic, A. M. (2005). Don’t stop at the borders: Theorizing beyond dichotomies of work and family. In V. L. Bengtson, A. C. Acock, K. R. Allen, P. Dilworth-Anderson, & D. M. Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory & research (pp. 493–516). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  60. Magill-Evans, J., Harrison, M. J., Rempel, G., & Slater, L. (2006). Interventions with fathers of young children: Systematic literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 55(2), 248–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maurer, T. W., & Pleck, J. H. (2006). Fathers’ caregiving and breadwinning: A gender congruence analysis. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7, 101–112. doi: 10.1037/1524-9220.7.2.101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McBride, B. A., Brown, G. L., Bost, K. K., Shin, N., Vaughn, B., & Korth, B. (2005). Paternal identity, maternal gatekeeping, and father involvement. Family Relations, 54, 360–372. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2005.00323.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McBride, B. A., Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., & Ho, M. (2005). The mediating role of fathers’ school involvement on student achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 201–216. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2004.12.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Medway, F. J., Davis, K. E., Cafferty, T. P., Chappell, K. D., & O’Hearn, R. E. (1995). Family disruption and adult attachment correlates of spouse and child reactions to separation and reunion due to Operation Desert Storm. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 14(2), 97–118. doi: 10.1521/jscp.1995.14.2.97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. National Fatherhood Initiative. (2013). Deployed fathers & families: Guide for military personnel. Germantown, MD: National Fatherhood Initiative.Google Scholar
  66. Nettle, D. (2008). Why do some dads get more involved than others? Evidence from a large British Cohort. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(6), 416–423. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2008.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Palkovitz, R. (1997). Reconstructing “involvement”: Expanding conceptualizations of men’s caring in contemporary families. In A. J. Hawkins & D. C. Dollahite (Eds.), Generative fathering: Beyond deficit perspectives. Current issues in the family series, Vol. 3 (pp. 200–216). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  68. Parke, R. D., & Brott, A. A. (1999). Throwaway dads: The myths and barriers that keep men from being the fathers they want to be. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  69. Patterson, G. R. (2005). The next generation of PMTO models. Behavior Therapist, 28(2), 25–32.Google Scholar
  70. Patterson, G. R., & Chamberlain, P. (1994). A functional analysis of resistance during parent training therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1, 53–70. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.1994.tb00006.x.Google Scholar
  71. Patterson, G. R., & Dishion, T. J. (1988). Multilevel family process models: Traits, interactions, and relationships. In R. Hinde & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), Relationships and families: Mutual influences (pp. 283–310). Oxford, England: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  72. Pedersen, F. A. (1966). Relationships between father-absence and emotional disturbance in male military dependents. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development, 12(4), 321–331. doi: 10.2307/23082517.Google Scholar
  73. Pelham, W. E., Greiner, A. R., & Gnagy, E. M. (1998). Children’s summer treatment program manual. Buffalo, NY: CTADD.Google Scholar
  74. Pleck, J. H. (2007). Why could father involvement benefit children? Theoretical perspectives. Applied Developmental Science, 11(4), 196–202. doi: 10.1080/10888690701762068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rosenberg, J., & Wilcox, W. B. (2006). The importance of fathers in the healthy development of children: Child abuse and neglect user manual series. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schachman, K. A. (2010). Online fathering: The experience of first-time fatherhood in combat-deployed troops. Nursing Research, 59(1), 11–17. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181c3ba1d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Scott, K. L., & Crooks, C. V. (2007). Preliminary evaluation of an intervention program for maltreating fathers. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 7(3), 224–238. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhm007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Segal, M. W. (1986). The military and the family as greedy institutions. Armed Forces & Society, 13(1), 9–38. doi: 10.1177/0095327X8601300101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stolz, L. M. (1954). Father relations of war-born children: The effect of postwar adjustment of fathers on the behavior and personality of first children born while fathers were at war. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Sullivan, O., Coltrane, S., McAnnally, L., & Altintas, E. (2009). Father-friendly policies and time-use data in a cross-national context: Potential and prospects for future research. Annals of the Academy of Political and Social Science, 624, 214–233. doi: 10.1177/0002716209335138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Shannon, J. D., Cabrera, N. J., & Lamb, M. E. (2004). Fathers and mothers at play with their 2- and 3-year-olds: Contributions to language and cognitive development. Child Development, 75, 1806–1820. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00818.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thompson, R. A., & Raikes, H. A. (2003). Toward the next quarter-century: Conceptual and methodological challenges for attachment theory. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 691–718. doi: 10.1017/s0954579403000348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vormbrock, J. K. (1993). Attachment theory as applied to wartime and job-related marital separation. Psychological Bulletin, 114(1), 122–144. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.114.1.122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Waters, E., & Cummings, E. (2000). A secure base from which to explore close relationships. Child Development, 71(1), 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Willerton, E., Schwarz, R. L., Wadsworth, S. M. M., & Oglesby, M. S. (2011). Military fathers’ perspectives on involvement. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(4), 521–530. doi: 10.1037/a0024511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Methodology, Policy, and LeadershipPrevention Science Institute, Center for Assessment, Statistics, and Evaluation, University of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations