Scoliosis in Musicians and Dancers

  • Howard A. Bird


Traditionally scoliosis (Ancient Greek; ‘bending’) is a condition in which the spine is curved from side to side. On x-ray, viewed from the rear, the spine of an individual with scoliosis may be shaped like an ‘S’ or a ‘C’ rather than straight. In the performing artist, the classification becomes more complicated. Simplistically, an ‘S-shaped’ curve is compensated whilst a C-shaped curve is not, requiring the pelvis to be tilted. Sometimes scolioses viewed from front to back are even more complicated, an S adjacent to a C, for example, which would also be uncompensated. Once local disease of the hip is excluded, an uncompensated scoliosis is one of the commonest causes of a slight difference in the leg length.


Idiopathic Scoliosis Thoracic Spine Spinal Pain Joint Hypermobility Ballet Dancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH. The NOTOM hypothesis for idiopathic scoliosis: is it nullified by the delayed puberty of female rhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers with scoliosis? Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;91:12–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Negrini S, Aulisa A, Aulisa L, Circo A, Mauroy J, Durmala J, Grivas T, Knott P, Kotwicki T, Maruyama T, Minozzi S, O’Brien J, Papadopoulos D, Rigo M, Rivard C, Romano M, Wynne J, Villagrasa M, Weiss H, Zaina F. 2011 SOSORT guidelines: orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. Scoliosis. 2012;7:3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Negrini S, Aulisa L, Ferraro C, Fraschini P, Masiero S, Simonazzi P, Tedeschi C, Venturin A. Italian guidelines on rehabilitation treatment of adolescents with scoliosis or other spinal deformities. Eura Medicophys. 2005;41(2):183–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stagnara P, Mollon G, De Mauroy J. Reeducation des scolioses. Paris: Expansion Scientifique Francaise; 1990.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meyer C, Cammarata E, Haumont T, Deviterne D, Gauchard G, Leheup B, Lascombes P, Perrin P. Why do idiopathic scoliosis patients participate more in gymnastics? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006;16(4):231–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bunnell WP. Outcome of spinal screening. Spine. 1993;18(12):1572–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zaina F, Negrini S, Atanasio S. TRACE (Trunk Aesthetic Clinical Evaluation), a routine clinical tool to evaluate aesthetics in scoliosis patients: development from the Aesthetic Index (AI) and repeatability. Scoliosis. 2009;4(1):3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Negrini S, Grivas TB, Kotwicki T, Maruyama T, Rigo M, Weiss HR. Why do we treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? What we want to obtain and to avoid for our patients. SOSORT 2005 Consensus paper. Scoliosis. 2006;1:4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard A. Bird
    • 1
  1. 1.University College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations