Spain: A New Gravity Centre for Latin American Migration

Part of the Applied Demography Series book series (ADS, volume 5)


This chapter examines emigration patterns of the Latin American population from Spain abroad during the period 2002–2012, with a particular focus on the period before and after the 2008 crisis. The analysis is based on micro-data from the municipal register and takes into account two types of international move: returns to the country of birth and emigration to other countries. The chapter reviews the potential and limitations of Spanish data sources on international emigration, provides estimates of the intensity and demographic characteristics of the two types of migration and discusses the impact of the crisis on each migration flow as well as their regional distribution.


Emigration Return migration Re-emigration Spain Latin America 



This paper has been carried out in the framework of the research project: Inflexión del ciclo económico y transformaciones de las migraciones en España (CSO2010–19177), funded by the Ministry of Education and Science, National R+D+I Plan 2007–2010.


  1. Bastia, T. (2011). “Should I stay or should I go? Return migration in times of crises”. Journal of International Development, 23, 583–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bilsborrow, R.E. (1993). Issues in the measurement of female migration in developing countries. In United Nations (Ed.), Internal migration of women in developing countries (pp. 116–130). New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  3. Boccagni, P., & Lagomarsino, F. (2011). Migration and the global crisis: new prospects for return? The case of Ecuatorians in Europe. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 30(3), 282–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borjas, G. J., & Bratberg, B. (1996). Who leaves? The outmigration of the foreign-born. Review of Economic and Statistics, 78, 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castro, L. J., & Rogers, A. (1982). What the age composition of migrants can tell us? Population Bulletin of the United Nations, 15 63–79.Google Scholar
  6. Domingo, A., & Recaño, J. (2010). La inflexión en el ciclo migratorio internacional: impacto y consecuencias demográficas. In E. Aja, J. Arango, & J. Oliver Alonso (Eds.), La inmigración en tiempos de crisis. Anuario de la Inmigración en España (pp. 116–130). Barcelona: CIDOB ediciones.Google Scholar
  7. Domingo, A., & Sabater, A. (2013a). Crisis económica y emigración: la perspectiva demográfica. In E. Aja, J. Arango, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Inmigración y crisis: entre la continuidad y el cambio. Anuario de Inmigración en España (edición 2012, pp. 60–87). Madrid: CIDOB.Google Scholar
  8. Domingo, A., & Sabater, A. (2013b). Emigración marroquí desde España en contexto de crisis. Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios, 3(1), 29–60.Google Scholar
  9. Gil, F. (2010). Análisis de dos propuestas metodológicas para estimar las salidas de extranjeros de España: las bajas por caducidad padronales y la renovación de las tarjetas de residencia temporales. Estadística Española, 52(174), 277–309.Google Scholar
  10. Gil, F., Bayona, J., & Vono, D. (2013). Las migraciones internas de los latinoamericanos en España: del boom a la crisis económica. Papeles de Población, 71(1), 1–41.Google Scholar
  11. Hugo, G.J. (1993). Migrant women in developing countries. In United Nations (Ed.), Internal migration of women in developing countries (pp. 47–73). New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  12. Izquierdo, A. (1996). La inmigración inesperada. Madrid: Trotta.Google Scholar
  13. Jasso, G., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (1982). Estimating the emigration rates of legal immigrants using administrative and survey data: the 1971 cohort of immigrants to the United States. Demography, 19(3), 279–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. King, R. (1986). Return migration and regional economic development: an overview. In R. King (Ed.), Return migration and regional economic problems (pp. 1–37). Londres: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  15. Larramona, G. (2013). Out-migration of immigrants in Spain. Population, 68(2), 213–235. (English edition).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. López de Lera, D. (2010). Emigración, inmigración y retorno: tres etapas de un mismo proceso. Polígonos Revista de Geografía, 20, 9–27.Google Scholar
  17. Mejía, W., & Castro, Y. (2012). Retorno de migrantes a la Comunidad Andina. Bogotá: Fundación Esperanza.Google Scholar
  18. OECD (2008). International migration outlook. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  19. Parella, S., & Petroff, A. (2014). Migración de retorno en España: salidas de inmigrantes y programas de retorno en un contexto de crisis. In J. Arango, D. Moya, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Inmigración y emigración: mitos y realidades (pp. 68–87). Barcelona: CIDOB.Google Scholar
  20. Pérez, A. (2004). Los residentes latinoamericanos en España: de la presencia diluida a la mayoritaria. Papeles de población, 10(41), 259–295.Google Scholar
  21. Poulain, M. (1993). Confrontation des statistiques de migration intra-europa: vers une matrice complète? European Journal of Population, 9(4), 353–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reagan, P. B., & Olsen, R. J. (2000). You can go home again: evidence from longitudinal data. Demography, 37(3), 339–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Reher, D. S., & Requena, M. (2009). (Eds.). Las múltiples caras de la inmigración en España. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.Google Scholar
  24. Rogers, A., & Willekens, F. J. (1986). (Eds). Migration and settlement. A multiregional comparative study. Dordrecht: Reidel Publ. Co.Google Scholar
  25. Schramm, C. (2011). Retorno y reinserción de migrantes ecuatorianos. La importancia de las redes sociales transnacionales. Revista CIDOB d’Afers Internacionals, 93–94, 241–260.Google Scholar
  26. Schwabish, J. A. (2011). Identifying rates of emigration in the United States using administrative earnings records. International Journal of Population Research. Article ID 546201.Google Scholar
  27. Singelmann, J. (1993). Levels and trends of female internal migration in developing countries: 1960–1980. In United Nations internal migration of women in developing countries (pp. 77–115). New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  28. Thierry, X., Herm, A., Kupiszewska, D., Nowok, B., & Poulain, M. (2005). How the UN recommendations and the forthcoming EU regulation on international migration statistics are fulfilled in the 25 EU countries? Paper presented at the XXV International Population Conference, Tours.Google Scholar
  29. United Nations. (1993). Internal migration of women in developing countries. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  30. Van Hook, J., Zhang, W., Bean, F. D., & Passel, J. S. (2006). Foreign born emigration: A new approach and estimates based on matched CPS files. Demography, 43(2), 361–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.United NationsNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Universidad de MálagaAndalusiaSpain

Personalised recommendations