Diegetization: An Approach for Narrative Scaffolding in Open-World Simulations for Training

  • Kevin Carpentier
  • Domitile Lourdeaux
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8832)


The use of storytelling for learning is widely approved and encouraged. Yet, in virtual environments for training, there are difficulties to build a story when there is no global control over the course of events. We present in this paper an approach called diegetization. Supported by structuralist narrative theories, this approach aims to dynamically match a sequence of events with sequence of narrative patterns. The pedagogical prescriptions are then extended to consolidate the recognized narrative sequences. The process uses semantic models to benefit from pattern matching algorithm and deep inferences. The proposition was implemented in the Humans platform and applied to a scenario for training in high-risk activities.


virtual training interactive storytelling constraint satisfaction problem structuralism semiotic semantic representation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Odin, R.: De la fiction. De Boeck Suprieur (September 2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bruner, J.S.: Acts of meaning. Harvard University Press (1990)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dettori, G., Paiva, A.: Narrative learning in technology-enhanced environments. In: Balacheff, D.N., Ludvigsen, D.S., Jong, D.T.d., Lazonder, D.A., Barnes, D.S. (eds.) Technology-Enhanced Learning, pp. 55–69. Springer Netherlands (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schank, R.C.: Tell me a story: Narrative and intelligence. Northwestern University Press (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malone, T.W., Lepper, M.R.: Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. Aptitude Learning and Instruction 3(3), 223–253 (1987)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Klein, S., Aeschlimann, J.F., Balsiger, D.F.: Automatic novel writing: A status report. Wisconsin University (1973)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meehan, J.R.: TALE-SPIN, an interactive program that writes stories. IJCAI, 91–98 (1977)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bringsjord, S., Ferrucci, D.: Artificial intelligence and literary creativity: Inside the mind of brutus, a storytelling machine. Psychology Press (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dehn, N.: Story generation after TALE-SPIN. In: IJCAI, pp. 16–81. Citeseer (1981)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Prez, R.P., Sharples, M.: MEXICA: A computer model of a cognitive account of creative writing. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 13(2), 119–139 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Towards integrating plot and character for interactive drama. In: Working notes of the Social Intelligent Agents: The Human in the Loop Symposium, Menlo Park. AAAI Fall Symposium Series, pp. 113–118 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Swartjes, I., Kruizinga, E., Theune, M.: Let’s pretend I had a sword. In: Spierling, U., Szilas, N. (eds.) ICIDS 2008. LNCS, vol. 5334, pp. 264–267. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mott, B.W., Lester, J.C.: U-director: a decision-theoretic narrative planning architecture for storytelling environments. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2006, pp. 977–984. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Young, R.M., Riedl, M.O., Branly, M., Jhala, A., Martin, R.J., Saretto, C.J.: An architecture for integrating plan-based behavior generation with interactive game environments. Journal of Game Development 1(1), 51–70 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Riedl, M.O., Stern, A., Dini, D., Alderman, J.: Dynamic experience management in virtual worlds for entertainment, education, and training. International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications, Special Issue on Agent Based Systems for Human Learning 4(2), 23–42 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Façade: An experiment in building a fully-realized interactive drama. In: Game Developers Conference (GDC 2003) (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Porteous, J., Cavazza, M., Charles, F.: Applying planning to interactive storytelling: Narrative control using state constraints. ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST) 1(2),  10 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Szilas, N.: A computational model of an intelligent narrator for interactive narratives. Applied Artificial Intelligence 21(8), 753–801 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prince, G.: A dictionary of narratology. U. of Nebraska Press (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Propp, V.I.: Morphology of the Folktale. University of Texas Press (June 1968)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Todorov, T.: La grammaire du récit. Langages, 94–102 (1968)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peinado, F., Gervs, P.: Evaluation of automatic generation of basic stories. New Generation Computing 24(3), 289–302 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Beck, U.: La linguistique historique et son ouverture vers la typologie. Editions L’Harmattan (1976)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Greimas, A.J.: Sémantique structurale: recherche et méthode. Larousse edn. (1966)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bremond, C.: Logique du récit. ditions du Seuil (1973)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Polti, G.: Les 36 situations dramatiques. DV “Mercure de France” (1895)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Souriau, T.: Les deux cent mille Situations dramatiques. Flammarion (1950)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
    Lanquepin, V., Lourdeaux, D., Barot, C., Carpentier, K., Lhommet, M., Amokrane, K.: HUMANS: a HUman models based artificial eNvironments software platform. In: Proceedings of the Virtual Reality International Conference (VRIC 2013), Laval, France (2013)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Barot, C., Lourdeaux, D., Lenne, D.: Dynamic scenario adaptation balancing control, coherence and emergence. In: Proceedings of ICAART 2013: International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, Barcelona, Spain, vol. 2, pp. 232–237 (2013)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Carpentier, K., Lourdeaux, D., Mouttapa-Thouvenin, I.: Dynamic selection of learning situations in virtual environment. In: Proceedings of ICAART 2013: International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, Barcelona, Spain, vol. 2, pp. 101–110 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Carpentier
    • 1
  • Domitile Lourdeaux
    • 1
  1. 1.Heudiasyc - UMR CNRS 7253Université de Technologie de CompiègneCompiègneFrance

Personalised recommendations