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Current Status and Future Prospective of Neuroimaging for Epilepsy

  • F. CaranciEmail author
  • F. D’Arco
  • A. D’Amico
  • C. Russo
  • F. Briganti
  • M. Quarantelli
  • E. Tedeschi
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)

Abstract

Although the diagnosis of epilepsy remains mainly clinical, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a crucial role in the detection of lesions that can cause epilepsy, with high impact on the diagnostic work-up as well as on therapeutic planning. Morphologic MR imaging is still the main technique for identifying lesions responsible for the epilepsy, providing images with high spatial resolution, excellent soft-tissue contrast, and multiplanar view. Quantitative MR image analysis (segmentation, voxel-based morhometry), based on 3D T1-weighted images, offers an objective means of analyzing MR images thereby improving the capability of detecting subtle lesions, often interpreted as negative by qualitative assessment of the morphologic MR imaging. Diffusion tensor imaging allows the quantification of water molecules diffusion and characterizes the degree and direction of anisotropy. Areas of abnormal diffusion, responsible for epilepsy, may be related to occult dysgenesis, or to acquired damage, resulting in neuronal loss, gliosis, and extracellular space expansion; these changes often result in reduced anisotropy and in an increase in mean diffusivity. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides information about the biochemical environment of the brain, thereby helping in lateralizing the epilepsy focus. Functional MR imaging is used for lateralizing language functions, and also for surgical planning predicting functional deficits following epilepsy surgery. The interpretation of MR data should always be done by a neuroradiologist expert in the field of epilepsy imaging, trying to correlate the images with clinical and electrophysiological data.

Keywords

Epilepsy MRI PET SPECT Functional MRI MR spectroscopy 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Caranci
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. D’Arco
    • 1
  • A. D’Amico
    • 1
  • C. Russo
    • 1
  • F. Briganti
    • 1
  • M. Quarantelli
    • 2
  • E. Tedeschi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Neuroradiology UnitFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Biostructures and BioimagingNational Research CouncilNaplesItaly

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