Extraction and Characterization of Citations in Scientific Papers

Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 475)


We propose a hybrid method for the extraction and characterization of citations in scientific papers using machine learning combined with rule-based approaches. Our protocol consists of the extraction of metadata, bibliography parsing, section titles processing, and find-grained semantic annotation on the sentence level of texts. This allows us to generate Linked Open Data from a set of research papers in XML.


Semantic annotation Citation acts CRF RDF graphs Linked Open Data Bibliography parsing 


  1. 1.
    Bertin, M., Atanassova, I., Lariviere, V., Gingras, Y.: The distribution of references in scientific papers: an analysis of the IMRaD structure. In: Proceedings of the 14th ISSI Conference, pp. 591–603 (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Councill, I.G., Giles, C.L., Kan, M.Y.: ParsCit: an open-source CRF reference string parsing package. In: LREC (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Do, H.H.N., Chandrasekaran, M.K., Cho, P.S., Kan, M.Y.: Extracting and matching authors and affiliations in scholarly documents. In: Proceedings of the 13th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 219–228. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shotton, D.: Cito, the citation typing ontology. J. Biomed. Semant. 1(Suppl 1), S6 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Finkel, J.R., Grenager, T., Manning, C.: Incorporating non-local information into information extraction systems by gibbs sampling. In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics, Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 363–370 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Desclés, J.P.: Contextual exploration processing for discourse and automatic annotations of texts. In: FLAIRS Conference, pp. 281–284 (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bertin, M., Atanassova, I., Descles, J.P.: Automatic analysis of author judgment in scientific articles based on semantic annotation. In: 22nd International Florida Artificial Intelligence, Research Society Conference, Sanibel Island, Florida. AAAI Press (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bizer, C., Seaborne, A.: D2RQ-treating non-RDF databases as virtual RDF graphs. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2004), vol. 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cyganiak, R., Bizer, C.: D2R server: a semantic web front-end to existing relational databases. In: XML Tage, 2006, pp. 171–173 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shotton, D., Peroni, S.: DoCo, the document components ontology (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CIRSTUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations