Advertisement

The Individual, the State and a Cosmopolitan Legal Order

  • Sinthiou Estelle BuszewskiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Recently, it became mainstream to consider individuals as subjects of international law. Generally, this assessment refers to human rights law and international criminal law containing individual rights and obligations deriving directly from international law. However, individuals are not considered as being on equal footing with states. Here, the term of “partial” subjects of international law comes into play even though the accuracy of the term is limited. This article will elaborate on the philosophical foundations of international law according to Immanuel Kant’s legal philosophy in order to discuss two interrelated phenomena of current global law: on one hand, the role of states and the changed relationship between states and individuals and, on the other hand, the claim for legal empowerment of the individual beyond state borders. The line of argumentation will support the development of a cosmopolitan global order that primarily aims at securing individual external freedom.

Keywords

Security Council Legal Order Individual Freedom World State Definitive Article 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Addo MK (2010) The legal nature of international human rights. Martinus Nijhoff, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  2. Benhabib S (2006) Another cosmopolitanism post, poles. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. Besson S (2009) The authority of international law lifting the state veil. Sydney Law Rev 31:343–380Google Scholar
  4. Byrd BS, Hruschka J (2010) Kant’s doctrine of right: a commentary. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. Capps PM (2007) The rejection of the universal state. In: Tsagourias N (ed) Transnational constitutionalism: international and European perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 17–43Google Scholar
  6. Carson TL (1988) Perpetual peace: what Kant should have said. Soc Theory Pract 14:173–214Google Scholar
  7. Cassese A (2005) International law. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Dobner T (2010) More law, less democracy? Democracy and transnational constitutionalism. In: Dobner T, Loughlin M (eds) The twilight of constitutionalism? Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 141–161Google Scholar
  9. Frau R (2013) Überlegungen zur Bindung nicht-staatlicher Gewaltakteure an internationale Menschenrechte. Humanitäres Völkerrecht – Informationsschriften 1:13–20Google Scholar
  10. Geismann G (2011) Kant und kein Ende: Pax Kantiana oder Der Rechtsweg zum Weltfrieden. Königshausen & Neumann, WürzburgGoogle Scholar
  11. Gondek M (2009) The reach of human rights in a globalising world: extraterritorial application of human rights treaties. Intersentia Uitgevers N.V., AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  12. Gött H (2013) Die Lehre von den Völkerrechtssubjekten und die Entfaltung der internationalen Rechtsordnung. Blog Article, 22 January 2013, Junge Wissenschaft im Öffentlichen Recht (JUWISS Blog). http://www.juwiss.de/die-lehre-von-den-volkerrechtssubjekten-und-die-entfaltung-der-internationalen-rechtsordnung/-more-3910. Accessed 28 July 2014
  13. Habermas J (1995) Kants Idee des Ewigen Friedens – aus dem historischen Abstand von 200 Jahren. Kritische Justiz 28:293–319Google Scholar
  14. Habermas J (1998) Postnationale Konstellation. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/MainGoogle Scholar
  15. Habermas J (2005) Zwischen Naturalismus und Religion: philosophische Aufsätze. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/MainGoogle Scholar
  16. Habermas J (2008) The constitutionalization of international law and the legitimation problems of a constitution for world society. Constellations 15:444–455Google Scholar
  17. Habermas J (2010) Hat die Konstitutionalisierung des Völkerrechts noch eine Chance? Politisch verfasste Weltgesellschaft vs. Weltrepublik. In: Broszies C, Hahn H (eds) Globale Gerechtigkeit. Suhrkamp, Berlin, pp 373–403Google Scholar
  18. Held D (1995) Democracy and the global order: from the modern state to cosmopolitan governance. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Held D, McGrew A (2007) Globalization/anti-globalization: beyond the great divide. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Higgins R (1978) Conceptual thinking about the individual in international law. Br J Int Stud 4:1–19Google Scholar
  21. Hirsch P-A (2012) Legalization of international politics: on the (im)possibility of a constitutionalization of international law from a Kantian point of view. Göttingen J Int Law 4:479–518Google Scholar
  22. Höffe O (2010) Für und wider eine Weltrepublik. In: Broszies C, Hahn H (eds) Globale Gerechtigkeit. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main, pp 242–262Google Scholar
  23. Hurrelmann A, Leibfried S, Martens K, Mayer P (2007) Transforming the golden-age nation state. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  24. Kant S (1795) Zum ewigen Frieden. Klemme, Meiner Verlag, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  25. Kant S (1797) Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Rechtslehre. Ludwig, Meiner Verlag, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  26. Kersting W (1998) Philosophische Friedenstheorie und internationale Friedensordnung. In: Chwaszcza C, Kersting W (eds) Politische Philosophie der internationalen Beziehungen. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main, pp 523–554Google Scholar
  27. Kleingeld P (2012) Kant and cosmopolitanism – the philosophical ideal of world citizenship. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumm M (2009) The cosmopolitan turn in constitutionalism: on the relationship between constitutionalism in and beyond the state. In: Dunnoff JL, Trachtman JP (eds) Ruling the world? constitutionalism, international law, and global governance. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  29. Leibfried S, Zürn M (2006) Transformationen des Staates? SuhrkampGoogle Scholar
  30. Lillich R (1995) The role of the UN Security Council in protecting human rights in crisis situations: UN humanitarian intervention in the post-Cold War World. Tulane J Int Comp Law 3:1–17Google Scholar
  31. Maus I (2011) Über Volkssouveränität: Elemente einer Demokratietheorie. Suhrkamp, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  32. Meron T (2006) The humanization of international law. Brill, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  33. Peters A (2009) The merits of global constitutionalism. Indiana J Global Legal Stud 16:397–411Google Scholar
  34. Simma S, Khan D-E, Nolte G, Paulus A (2012) The Charter of the United Nations: a commentary. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  35. Slaughter A-M (1997) The real world order. Foreign Aff 76:183–190Google Scholar
  36. Steffek J (2007) Breaking the nation state shell: prospects for democratic legitimacy in the international domain. In: Hurrelmann A, Leibfried S, Martens K, Mayer P (eds) Transforming the golden-age nation state. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp 109–129Google Scholar
  37. Steiger D (2013) Nicht-staatliche Gewaltakteure im Fokus des Sicherheitsrats der Vereinten Nationen. In: Krieger H, Weingärtner D (eds) Streitkräfte und nicht-staatliche Akteure. Nomos, Baden-Baden, pp 55–82Google Scholar
  38. Stone Sweet A (2012) A cosmopolitan legal order: constitutional pluralism and rights adjudication in Europe. Global Constitutionalism 1:53–90Google Scholar
  39. Tomuschat C (2001) International law: ensuring the survival of mankind on the eve of a new century: general course on public international law. Martinus Nijhoff, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  40. von Arnauld A (2012) Völkerrecht. C. F. Müller, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  41. von Bogdandy A, Dann P, Goldmann M (2008) Developing the publicness of public international law: toward a legal framework for global governance activities. German Law J 9:1375–1400Google Scholar
  42. von Forst R (2007) Das Recht auf Rechtfertigung: Elemente einer konstruktivistischen Theorie der Gerechtigkeit. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/MainGoogle Scholar
  43. Walter C (2012) Subjects of international law. In: Wolfrum R (ed) Max Planck encyclopedia of international law, vol IX. Oxford, pp 634–643Google Scholar
  44. Wiener A (2014) A theory of contestation. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  45. Zumbausen PC (2012) Comparative, global and transnational constitutionalism: the emergence of a transnational legal-pluralist order. Global Constitutionalism 1:16–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Humboldt University BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Walther-Schücking-InstitutKielGermany

Personalised recommendations