How to Measure Internationalization of Higher Education



Proper management of internationalization of higher education institutions requires proper measurement methods. In this paper, two common indicators for internationalization are discussed and further developed, one for research and one for education. In both cases, the proposed indicators make use of existing data in a more sophisticated way. Through concrete examples, the differences between the existing and the proposed indicators are illustrated.


International Student High Education Institution International Collaboration Partner Country Collaborative Publication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 290–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altbach, P. G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L. E. (2009). Trends in global higher education: Tracking an academic revolution. Chestnut Hill: Boston College Center for International Higher Education.Google Scholar
  3. Bartell, M. (2003). Internationalization of universities: A university culture-based framework. Higher Education, 45, 43–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowman, N. A., & Bastedo, M. N. (2011). Anchoring effects in world university rankings: Exploring biases in reputation scores. Higher Education, 61, 431–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Elsevier. (2013a). Comparative benchmarking of European and US research collaboration and researcher mobility: A report prepared in collaboration between Science Europe and Elsevier’s SciVal Analytics. SciVal Analytics, Sept 2013.Google Scholar
  6. Elsevier. (2013b). International collaboration quadrants of Swedish HEI’s, Dec 2013.Google Scholar
  7. Frölich, N. (2006). Still academic and national – Internationalisation in Norwegian research and higher education. Higher Education, 52, 405–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Glänzel, W. (2001). National characteristics in international scientific co-authorship relations. Scientometrics, 51(1), 69–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gurin, P. (1999). The compelling need for diversity in education, Expert report prepared for the law suits Gratz and Hamacher v Bollinger, Duderstadt, the University of Michigan, and the University of Michigan College of LS&A, U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Civil Action No. 97-75231; and Grutter v Bollinger, Lehman, Shields, the University of Michigan and the University of Michigan Law School, U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Civil Action No. 97-75928. [On-line]. Available: Reprinted in: Michigan Journal of Race & Law, 5(1), 1999, 363–425, Reprinted in: The University of Massachusetts Schools of Education Journal, 32(2), 1999, 36–62.
  10. Healey, N. M. (2008). Is higher education really “internationalising”? Higher Education, 55, 333–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hu, S., & Kuh, G. D. (2003). Diversity experiences and college student learning and personal development. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 320–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hudzik, J. K., & Stohl, M. (2009). Modelling assessment of the outcomes and impacts of internationalisation. In H. de Wit (Ed.), Measuring success in the internationalisation of higher education (pp. 9–21). EAIE Occasional Paper 22. Amsterdam: EAIE.Google Scholar
  13. Klette, T. J., Möen, J., & Griliches, Z. (2000). Do subsidies to commercial R&D reduce market failures? Microeconometric evaluation studies. Research Policy, 29, 471–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Knight, J. (2003). Updating the definition of internationalization. International Higher Education, 33, 2–3.Google Scholar
  15. Knight, J. (2005). An internationalization model: Responding to new realities and challenges. In H. de Wit, I. C. Jaramillo, J. Gacel-Ávila, & J. Knight (Eds.), Higher education in Latin America: The international dimension (pp. 31–68). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  16. Knight, J. (2007). Internationalization: Concepts, complexities and challenges. In J. J. F. Forest & P. G. Altbach (Eds.), International handbook of higher education. Part one: Global themes and contemporary challenges (pp. 207–227). Amsterdam: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Luukkonen, T., Persson, O., & Sivertsen, G. (1992) Understanding patterns of international scientific collaboration, Science, Technology & Human Values 17 (1), 101–126Google Scholar
  18. Luukkonen, T. (2000). Additionality of EU framework programmes. Research Policy, 29, 711–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McKelvey, M., & Holmén, M. (2009). Learning to compete in European universities: From social institution to knowledge business. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Quist, M., Monaco, S., Söderberg, S., & Tumpane, J. (2013). Kartläggning av olika nationella system för utvärdering av forskningens kvalitet– förstudie inför regeringsuppdraget U2013/1700/F. Stockholm: Swedish Research Council.Google Scholar
  21. Rudzki, R. E. J. (1995). The application of a strategic management model to the internationalization of higher education institutions. Higher Education, 29, 421–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Smeby, J.-C., & Trondal, J. (2005). Globalisation or Europeanisation? International contact among university staff. Higher Education, 49, 449–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sporn, B. (2007). Governance and administration: Organizational and structural trends. In J. J. F. Forest & P. G. Altbach (Eds.), International handbook of higher education. Part one: Global themes and contemporary challenges (pp. 141–157). Amsterdam: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Stirling, A. (2007). A general framework for analysing diversity in science, technology and society. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 4, 707–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Svensson, L., & Wihlborg, M. (2010). Internationalising the content of higher education: The need for a curriculum perspective. Higher Education, 60, 595–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. The Royal Society. (2011). Knowledge, networks and nations: Global scientific collaboration in the 21st century. RS Policy document 03/11. London: The Royal Society.Google Scholar
  27. Tijssen, R., Waltman, L., & van Eck, N. J. (2011). Collaborations span 1,553 kilometres. Nature, 473, 154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Van der Wende, M. C. (2001). Internationalisation policies: About new trends and contrasting paradigms. Higher Education Policy, 14, 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wildawsky, B., Kelly, A. P., & Carey, K. (2011). Reinventing higher education: The promise of innovation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  30. Wissenshaftsrat. (2009). International mobility in science and humanities, Berlin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.STINTStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations