Skip to main content

Human Body Detection Using Redundant Radio Signal Strength Readings for Reliable Device-Free Localization

  • 868 Accesses

Part of the Advanced Technologies and Societal Change book series (ATSC)

Abstract

Device-free localization (DFL) and tracking of humans is an emerging technology and key component for the future of ambient assisted living. An unobtrusive radio-based system without mobile devices which have to be attached to the user enables a lot of applications, e.g. the passive health care monitoring of elderly in their home. The variations of the received signal strength (RSS) between deployed reference nodes are used as sensor for the detection of humans on the line-of-sight (LOS) between the regarding nodes. The main drawback of device-free localization using RSS variations is the limited reliability in typical home environments with shadowing and fading effects. Thus, not only on the LOS but also other regions may indicate a detection. To reduce the number of false alarms, we propose a multimodal diversity platform with the use of redundant RSS sensors. Beside antenna diversity also frequency diversity is used. The general signal behavior for different frequency bands is evaluated by high-resolution path loss experiments in a factory hall. Experiment results for the tracking of people along a corridor are used for the validation of the improved performance using redundant RSS information. With the proposed methodology, the average location estimation error is reduced significantly while no false alarms occur.

Keywords

  • False Alarm
  • Path Loss
  • Indoor Environment
  • Receive Signal Strength
  • Reference Node

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-11866-6_10
  • Chapter length: 11 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-11866-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Fleuret, F., Berclaz, J., Lengagne, R., Fua, P.: Multicamera people tracking with a probabilistic occupancy map. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 30(2), 267–282 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Orr, R.J., Abowd, G.D.: The smart floor: a mechanism for natural user identification and tracking. In: CHI ’00 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors Computing Systems, pp. 275–276 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Lin, A.: Doppler and direction-of-arrival (DDOA) radar for multiple-mover sensing. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 43(4), 1496–1509 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Wilson, J., Patwari, N.: Radio tomographic imaging with wireless networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 9(5), 621–632 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Zhao, Y., Patwari, N., Phillips, J.M., Venkatasubramanian, S.: Radio tomographic imaging and tracking of stationary and moving people via kernel distance. In: Proceeding of 12th International Conference Information Processing Sensor Networks—IPSN ’13, pp. 229–240 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Youssef, M., Mah, M., Agrawala, A.: Challenges: device-free passive localization for wireless environments. In: Proceeding of 13th Annual ACM, pp. 0–7 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Kosba, A., Saeed, A., Youssef, M.: Rasid: a robust WLAN device-free passive motion detection system. Pervasive Comput (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Kaltiokallio, O., Bocca, M., Eriksson, L.M.: Distributed RSSI processing for intrusion detection in indoor environments. In: Proceedings of the 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks Environments (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Kaltiokallio, O., Bocca, M.: Real-time intrusion detection and tracking in indoor environment through distributed RSSI processing. In: 2011 IEEE 17th International Conference on Embedded Real-Time Computing System Application, pp. 61–70 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Rappaport, T.S.: Wireless Communications—Principles and Practice. Prentic Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Wilson, J., Patwari, N.: A fade-level skew-Laplace signal strength model for device-free localization with wireless networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 11(6), 947–958 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Kaltiokallio, O., Bocca, M., Patwari, N.: Enhancing the accuracy of radio tomographic imaging using channel diversity. In: 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor System (MASS 2012), pp. 254–262 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Fink, A., Beikirch, H.: Device-free localization using redundant 2.4 GHz radio signal strength readings. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), pp. 1–7 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Fink, A., Beikirch, H.: Combining of redundant signal strength readings for an improved RF localization in multipath indoor environments. In: 15th International Conference on Information Fusion, Singapore, pp. 1–7 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Rappaport, T.S., McGillem, C.D.: UHF fading in factories. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 7(1), 40–48 (1989)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Elnahrawy, E., Li, X., Martin, R.P.: The limits of localization using signal strength: a comparative study. In: IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and AdHoc Communications and Networks, vol. 00, no. 3, pp. 406–414 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Whitehouse, K., Karlof, C., Culler, D.: A practical evaluation of radio signal strength for ranging-based localization. ACM SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 11(1), 41–52 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Abdi, A., Tepedelenlioglu, C., Kaveh, M., Giannakis, G.: On the estimation of the parameter for the rice fading distribution. 92 IEEE Commun. Lett. 5(3), 92–94 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andreas Fink .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Fink, A., Lange, J., Beikirch, H. (2015). Human Body Detection Using Redundant Radio Signal Strength Readings for Reliable Device-Free Localization. In: Wichert, R., Klausing, H. (eds) Ambient Assisted Living. Advanced Technologies and Societal Change. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11866-6_10

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11866-6_10

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-11865-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-11866-6

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)