A Literature Review of E-Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies: Positioning Research on Latin American Digital Startups

  • Gerardo Quinones
  • Brian Nicholson
  • Richard Heeks


This chapter critically reviews literature on e-entrepreneurship in order to position future empirical research with a focus on emerging markets (The terms “emerging economies”, “emerging countries”, or “developing economies” are used interchangeably and refer to the list of countries named as such by the International Monetary Fund (World Economic Outlook. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2013)) in general and in Latin America in particular. The term ‘e-entrepreneurship’ has been used to describe the creation of different e-businesses by both start-ups and established companies. Thus, the concept of Digital Start-up (DS) as a specific unit of study of e-entrepreneurship is presented. DSs are defined as start-ups born on the internet to sell only digital products/services exclusively online. The emergence of this new breed of enterprises is opening doors for entrepreneurs to enter new markets with an explosive potential for growth, as demonstrated by the cases of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and others. This phenomenon acted as a catalyst for a new entrepreneurial ecosystem in emerging markets supported by both private and public entities. However, there are still very limited signs of success outside of the United States, Israel, and Europe. The literature reveals that the lifecycle and ecosystems of DSs have been extensively researched in developed countries; however, there is a relative paucity in the context of emerging economies. E-entrepreneurship research is grouped into six categories: e-business models, digital economy, entrepreneurship, business ecosystems, innovation, and e-entrepreneurship. Relevant theoretical frameworks and their application to DSs are explored. The chapter concludes that gaps remain in the literature on e-entrepreneurship in the context of emerging economies and questions for future research are presented.


Digital start-up Business ecosystems E-business E-entrepreneurship Innovation Emerging economies Latin America 


  1. Afuah, A., & Tucci, C. L. (2000). Internet business models and strategies: Text and cases. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Weshah, G. A., & Al-Zubi, K. (2012). E-business enablers and barriers: Empirical study of SMES in Jordanian communication sector. Global Journal of Business Research, 6(3), 1–15.Google Scholar
  3. Alzougool, B., & Kurnia, S. (2010). Towards a better understanding of SMEs’ perception of electronic commerce technology adoption. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(3), 9–37.Google Scholar
  4. Arenius, P., Sasi, V., & Gabrielsson, M. (2005). Rapid internationalisation enabled by the internet: The case of a knowledge intensive company. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3(4), 279–290.Google Scholar
  5. Arruda, C., Nogueira, V. S., & Costa, V. (2013). The Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem of startups: An analysis of entrepreneurship determinants in Brazil as seen from the OECD pillars. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 2(3), 17–57.Google Scholar
  6. Asghari, R., & Gedeon, S. (2010). Significance and impact of internet on the entrepreneurial process: E-entrepreneurship and completely digital entrepreneurship. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th European conference on innovation and entrepreneurship. Athens.Google Scholar
  7. Awa, H. O., Nwibere, B. M., & Inyang, B. J. (2010). The uptake of electronic commerce by SMES: A meta theoretical framework expanding the determining constructs of tam and toe frameworks. Journal of Global Business and Technology, 6(1), 1–27.Google Scholar
  8. Ayyagari, M., Demirguc-Kunt, A., & Maksimovic, V. (2011). Small vs. young firms across the world: Contribution to employment, job creation, and growth. Policy Research Working Paper Series: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  9. Bailetti, T., & Bot, S. D. (2013, February). An ecosystem-based job-creation engine fuelled by technology entrepreneurs. In Technology innovation management review (Platforms, communities, and business ecosystems). Accessed 16 July 2013.
  10. Barnes, D., Hinton, M., & Mieczkowska, S. (2004). Avoiding the fate of the dotbombs: Lessons from three surviving dotcom start-ups. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(3), 329–337.Google Scholar
  11. Barr, C. J. (2001). The digital enterprise: How to reshape your business for a connected world. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(12), 1084–1085.Google Scholar
  12. Batjargal, B. (2005). Internet entrepreneurship: Networks and performance of internet ventures in China (William Davidson Institute Working Paper No. 753). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University – Davis Center.Google Scholar
  13. Berman, S. J. (2012). Digital transformation: Opportunities to create new business models. Strategy & Leadership, 40(2), 16–24. doi: 10.1108/10878571211209314.Google Scholar
  14. Bhupatiraju, S., Nomaler, Ö., Triulzi, G., & Verspagen, B. (2012). Knowledge flows – Analyzing the core literature of innovation, entrepreneurship and science and technology studies. Research Policy, 41(7), 1205–1218.
  15. Birley, S. (1986). The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(1), 107–117.Google Scholar
  16. Blank, S. (2013a). Why the lean start-up changes everything. Harvard Business Review, 91(5), 64–+.Google Scholar
  17. Blank, S. (2013b). Why the lean start-up changes everything. Harvard Business Review, 91(5), 63–72.Google Scholar
  18. Blank, S., & Dorf, B. (2012). The startup owner’s manual: The step-by-step guide for building a great company. California: K&S Ranch Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Boateng, R., Heeks, R., Molla, A., & Hinson, R. (2008). E-commerce and socio-economic development: Conceptualizing the link. Internet Research, 18(5), 562–594.Google Scholar
  20. Borges Lemos, P. A. (2011). As universidades de pesquisa e a gestão estratégica do empreendedorismo: uma proposta de metodologia de análise de ecosistemas. The strategic management of entrepreneurship in research universities: an ecosystem-based view methodology. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Geociências.Google Scholar
  21. Breuer, H. (2013). Lean venturing: Learning to create new business through exploration, elaboration, evaluation, experimentation, and evolution. International Journal of Innovation Management, 17(03).Google Scholar
  22. Brynjolfsson, E., & Kahin, B. (2000). Understanding the digital economy: Data, tools and research. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  23. Bull, I., & Willard, G. E. (1993). Towards a theory of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(3), 183–195.Google Scholar
  24. Cabrera, A. M. G., & Soto, M. G. G. (2012). Ecosistema emprendedor para las empresas de base tecnológica: Visión basada en los recursos (entrepreneurial ecosystem for the TBFs: A resource-based view). TEC Empresarial, 4(1), 8–21.Google Scholar
  25. Callahan, T., Kutcher, E., & Manyika, J. (2014). Breaking through the start-up stall zone. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved February, 2014, from
  26. Carayannis, E. G., & von Zedtwitz, M. (2005). Architecting gloCal (global–local), real-virtual incubator networks (G-RVINs) as catalysts and accelerators of entrepreneurship in transitioning and developing economies: Lessons learned and best practices from current development and business incubation practices. Technovation, 25(2), 95–110.
  27. Carroll, G. R. (1984). Organizational ecology. Annual Review of Sociology, 10, 71–93. doi: 10.2307/2083168.Google Scholar
  28. Cervantes, R. (2013). Innovation infrastructures to transform the Mexican Internet Industry: The case of the startup community. (PhD in Information and Computer Sciences), University of California, Irvine. (UMI Number: 3565417).Google Scholar
  29. Cervantes, R., & Nardi, B. (2012). Building a Mexican startup culture over the weekends. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Intercultural Collaboration. Bengaluru.Google Scholar
  30. Chandra, Y., & Leenders, M. A. A. M. (2012). User innovation and entrepreneurship in the virtual world: A study of Second Life residents. Technovation, 32(7–8), 464–476.
  31. Chitura, T., Mupemhi, S., Dube, T., & Bolongkikit, J. (2008). Barriers to electronic commerce adoption in small and medium enterprises: A critical literature review. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 13(2), 1–13.Google Scholar
  32. Chong, S., & Pervan, G. (2007). Factors influencing the extent of deployment of electronic commerce for small-and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 5(1), 1–29.Google Scholar
  33. Cohen, B. (2006). Sustainable valley entrepreneurial ecosystems. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  34. Corallo, A., & Protopapa, S. (2007). Business networks and ecosystems: Rethinking the biological metaphor. Digital business ecosystems, 60–64.Google Scholar
  35. Crespi, G., & Zuñiga, P. (2012). Innovation and productivity: Evidence from six Latin American countries. World Development, 40(2), 273–290.Google Scholar
  36. Daniel, E., Wilson, H., & Myers, A. (2002). Adoption of e-commerce by SMEs in the UK. International Small Business Journal, 20(3), 253–270.Google Scholar
  37. Daude, C. (2010). Innovation, productivity and economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  38. de Medeiros Bezerra, M. H., de Medeiros Júnior, J. V., & Moreno Añez, M. E. (2012). Análise da dinâmica da difusão da inovação em uma startup de internet com base no modelo Bass Diffusion. Paper presented at the X Congreso Latinoamericano de Dinámica de Sistemas, III Congreso Brasileño de Dinámica de Sistemas, I Congreso Argentino de Dinámica de Sistemas, Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  39. Dean, D., DiGrande, S., Field, D., Lundmark, A., O’Day, J., Pineda, J., & Zwillenberg, P. (2012). The Internet Economy in the G-20: The $4.2 Trillion Growth Opportunity. BCG Perspectives. Retrieved June 30, 2013, from
  40. Doganova, L., & Eyquem-Renault, M. (2009). What do business models do?: Innovation devices in technology entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 38(10), 1559–1570.
  41. Drucker, P. F. (2002). The discipline of innovation. Harvard Business Review, 80, 95–104.Google Scholar
  42. Edquist, C. (2005). Systems of innovation: Perspectives and challenges. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. Nelson (Eds.), Oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 181–208). Retrieved from =cDB97AhbYm&sig=48iN145d1V4XuiDiNHVFhZcZXN4&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  43. Effaha, J. (2013). Institutional effects on E-payment entrepreneurship in a developing country: Enablers and constraints. Information Technology for Development. doi: 10.1080/02681102.2013.859115.
  44. Elia, E., Louis, A. L., & Élisabeth, L. (2007). Focus of B-to-B e-commerce initiatives and related benefits in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises. Information Systems and eBusiness Management, 5(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  45. Etzkowitz, H., Steiber, A., & Alänge, S. (2013). The formation and growth of Google: A firm-level triple helix perspective. Social Science Information, 52(4), 575–604. doi: 10.1177/0539018413497833.Google Scholar
  46. Fariselli, P., Oughton, C., Picory, C., & Sugden, R. (1999). Electronic commerce and the future for SMEs in a global market-place: Networking and public policies. Small Business Economics, 12(3), 261–275.Google Scholar
  47. Feld, B. (2012). Startup communities: Building an entrepreneurial ecosystem in your city. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Fernando Alonso, M., & Fitzgerald, G. (2005). A multidimensional framework for SME e-business progression. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 18(5/6), 678–696.Google Scholar
  49. Fillis, I., Johansson, U., & Wagner, B. (2004). A qualitative investigation of smaller firm e-business development. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(3), 349–361.Google Scholar
  50. Fillis, I., & Wagner, B. (2005). E-business development: An exploratory investigation of the small firm. International Small Business Journal, 23(6), 604–634. doi: 10.1177/0266242605057655.Google Scholar
  51. Foley, P., & Ram, M. (2002). The use of online technology by ethnic minority businesses DTI small business service research report. Available at: De Montfort University.
  52. Foster, C., & Heeks, R. (2013). Conceptualising inclusive innovation: Modifying systems of innovation frameworks to understand diffusion of new technology to low-income consumers. European Journal of Development Research, 25(3), 333–355.Google Scholar
  53. García-Murillo, M. (2004). Institutions and the adoption of electronic commerce in Mexico. Electronic Commerce Research, 4(3), 201–219.Google Scholar
  54. Gartner, W. B. (1990). What are we talking about when we talk about entrepreneurship? Journal of Business Venturing, 5(1), 15–28.Google Scholar
  55. Gengatharen, D. E., & Standing, C. (2005). A framework to assess the factors affecting success or failure of the implementation of government-supported regional e-marketplaces for SMEs. European Journal of Information Systems, 14(4), 417–433.Google Scholar
  56. Ghobakhloo, M., Arias-Aranda, D., & Benitez-Amado, J. (2011). Adoption of e-commerce applications in SMEs. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 111(8), 1238–1269.Google Scholar
  57. Gopal, R. D., Ramesh, R., & Whinston, A. B. (2003). Microproducts in a digital economy: Trading small, gaining large. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(2), 9–29.Google Scholar
  58. Grandon, E., & Pearson, J. M. (2003). Strategic value and adoption of electronic commerce: An empirical study of Chilean small and medium businesses. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 6(3), 22–43.Google Scholar
  59. Grandon, E. E., & Pearson, J. M. (2004). Electronic commerce adoption: An empirical study of small and medium US businesses. Information Management, 42(1), 197–216. doi: 10.1016/ Scholar
  60. Gundry, L. K., & Kickul, J. R. (2006). Leveraging the ‘E’ in entrepreneurship: Test of an integrative model of e-commerce new venture growth. International Journal of Technology Management, 33(4), 341–355.Google Scholar
  61. Gutierrez, M. A. (2004). Latin America and the digital economy challenge. Foresight: the Journal of Futures Studies, Strategic Thinking and Policy, 6(3), 163–172.Google Scholar
  62. Hamilton, L. C., & Asundi, R. (2008). Technology usage and innovation: Its effect on the profitability of SMEs. Management Research News, 31(11), 830–845.Google Scholar
  63. Hanafizadeh, P., Behboudi, M., Ahadi, F., & Fatemeh Ghaderi, V. (2012). Internet advertising adoption: A structural equation model for Iranian SMEs. Internet Research, 22(4), 499–526.Google Scholar
  64. Heeks, R., Duncombe, R., Kintu, R., Nakangu, B., & Abraham, S. (2005). eCommerce for small enterprise development: A handbook for entrepreneurs in developing countries. Manchester: The University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  65. Herrmann, B. L., Marmer, M., Dogrultan, E., & Holtschke, D. (2012). Startup ecosystem report 2012. Telefónica Digital partnered with Startup Genome.Google Scholar
  66. Hilbert, M. (2010). When is cheap, cheap enough to bridge the digital divide? Modeling income related structural challenges of technology diffusion in Latin America. World Development, 38(5), 756–770.
  67. Hindle, K., & Yencken, J. (2004). Public research commercialisation, entrepreneurship and new technology based firms: An integrated model. Technovation, 24(10), 793–803.
  68. Hinson, R., Boateng, R., & Olav Jull, S. (2008). E-business financing: Preliminary insights from a developing economy context. Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in Society, 6(3), 196–215.Google Scholar
  69. Hitt, L. M., & Brynjolfsson, E. (1996). Productivity, business profitability, and consumer surplus: Three different measures of information technology value. MIS Quarterly, 20(2), 121–142. doi: 10.2307/249475.Google Scholar
  70. Houghton, K. A., & Winklhofer, H. (2004). The effect of website and E-commerce adoption on the relationship between SMEs and their export intermediaries. International Small Business Journal, 22(4), 369–388.Google Scholar
  71. Hui, A. (2013, August 5–9). Lean change: Enabling Agile transformation through lean startup, Kotter and Kanban: An experience report. Paper presented at the Agile Conference (AGILE). Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  72. Hull, C. E., Hung, Y.-T. C., Hair, N., & Perotti, V. (2007). Taking advantage of digital opportunities: A typology of digital entrepreneurship. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 4(3), 290–303.Google Scholar
  73. IMF. (2013). World economic outlook. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  74. Isenberg, D. J. (2010). How to start an entrepreneurial revolution. Harvard Business Review, 88(6), 40–50.Google Scholar
  75. Isenberg, D. J. (2011). The entrepreneurship ecosystem strategy as a new paradigm for economic policy: Principles for cultivating entrepreneurship. Institute of International European Affairs, Dublin.Google Scholar
  76. Jennex, M. E., Amoroso, D., & Adelakun, O. (2004). E-commerce infrastructure success factors for small companies in developing economies. Electronic Commerce Research, 4(3), 263–286.Google Scholar
  77. Jobs, C. (2012). A comparative analysis of the adoption rates of social networking and microblogging between industrialized and developing nations. Journal of International Business Research, 11(1), 107–118.Google Scholar
  78. Kantis, H. D., Federico, J., & Menéndez, C. (2012). Políticas De Fomento Al Emprendimiento Dinámico En América Latina: Tendencias Y Desafíos.Google Scholar
  79. Kantis, H. D., & Federico, J. S. (2012). Entrepreneurial ecosystems in Latin America: The role of policies. Liverpool: International Research and Policy Roundtable (Kauffman Foundation).Google Scholar
  80. Kartiwi, M., & MacGregor, R. C. (2007). Electronic commerce adoption barriers in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developed and developing countries: A cross-country comparison. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 5(3), 35–51.Google Scholar
  81. Kaynak, E., Tatoglu, E., & Kula, V. (2005). An analysis of the factors affecting the adoption of electronic commerce by SMEs: Evidence from an emerging market. International Marketing Review, 22(6), 623–640.Google Scholar
  82. Kenny, C. (2003). The internet and economic growth in less-developed countries: A case of managing expectations? Oxford Development Studies, 31(1), 99–113.Google Scholar
  83. Klepper, S. (2001). Employee startups in high-tech industries. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(3), 639–674.Google Scholar
  84. Knight, P. T. (2011). e-Development in Brasil. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 2(1), 77–116.Google Scholar
  85. Kollmann, T. (2006). What is e-entrepreneurship?–Fundamentals of company founding in the net economy. International Journal of Technology Management, 33(4), 322–340.Google Scholar
  86. La Rovere, R. L. (2003). Information systems in networks of small firms. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  87. Lalic, M., Calopa, M. K., & Horvat, J. (2012). Lean startup in Croatia-does the Croatian startup scene develop effective enterprises? Tem Journal, 1(3), 200.Google Scholar
  88. Lasch, F., Le Roy, F., & Yami, S. (2007). Critical growth factors of ICT start-ups. Management Decision, 45(1), 62–75.Google Scholar
  89. Lastres, H. M. M., & Cassiolato, J. E. (2000). From clusters to innovation systems: Cases from Brazil. Paper presented at the GDN, second annual Global Development Network. Tokyo.Google Scholar
  90. Lastres, H. M. M., & Cassiolato, J. E. (2003). Systems of innovation and development from a South American perspective: a contribution to Globelics. Paper presented at the Unpublished paper presented at the first Globelics Workshop on Innovation Systems. Aalborg University, Aalborg.Google Scholar
  91. Li, X., Troutt, M. D., Brandyberry, A., & Wang, T. (2011). Decision factors for the adoption and continued use of online direct sales Channels among SMEs. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(1 Art 4), 1–31.Google Scholar
  92. Lockett, N. J., & Brown, D. H. (2000). EClusters: The potential for the emergence of digital enterprise communities enabled by one or more intermediaries in SMEs. Knowledge and Process Management, 7(3), 196–206.Google Scholar
  93. Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (2004). E-business strategies and internet business models: How the internet adds value. Organizational Dynamics, 33(2), 161–173.
  94. MacGregor, R. C. (2004). The role of strategic alliances in the ongoing use of electronic commerce technology in regional small business. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 2(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  95. Mahmood, A., & Cheng Ming, Y. (2005). E-entrepreneurship in knowledge economy: Implications for the Asia-pacific economies. The Business Review, Cambridge, 4(1), 153–160.Google Scholar
  96. Martinez, C. A., & Williams, C. (2010). National institutions, entrepreneurship and global ICT adoption: a cross-country test of competing theories. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 11(1), 73–91.Google Scholar
  97. Matlay, H. (2004). E-entrepreneurship and small E-business development: Towards a comparative research agenda. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(3), 408–414.Google Scholar
  98. Matlay, H., & Addis, M. (2003). Adoption of ICT and e-commerce in small businesses: An HEI-based consultancy perspective. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(3), 321–335.Google Scholar
  99. Matlay, H., & Martin, L. M. (2009). Collaborative and competitive strategies in virtual teams of e-entrepreneurs: A pan-European perspective. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 16(1).Google Scholar
  100. Matlay, H., & Westhead, P. (2005). Virtual teams and the rise of e-entrepreneurship in Europe. International Small Business Journal, 23(3), 279–302.Google Scholar
  101. May, B. (2012, August 13–17). Applying lean startup: An experience report – Lean & Lean UX by a UX Veteran: Lessons learned in creating & launching a complex consumer app. Paper presented at the Agile Conference (AGILE). Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  102. McDaniel, B. A. (2000). A survey on entrepreneurship and innovation. The Social Science Journal, 37(2), 277–284.
  103. McQuaid, R. W. (2002). Entrepreneurship and ICT industries: Support from regional and local policies. Regional Studies, 36(8), 909–919. doi: 10.1080/0034340022000012333.Google Scholar
  104. Middleton, K. L., & Byus, K. (2011). Information and communications technology adoption and use in small and medium businesses. Management Research Review, 34(1), 98–110.Google Scholar
  105. Miller, D., & Garnsey, E. (2000). Entrepreneurs and technology diffusion: How diffusion research can benefit from a greater understanding of entrepreneurship. Technology in Society, 22(4), 445–465.
  106. Miller, P., & Bound, K. (2011). The startup factories. In The rise of accelerator programmes to support new technology ventures. London: NESTA.Google Scholar
  107. Mohamad, R., & Ismail, N. A. P. C. M. A. (2009). Electronic commerce adoption in SME: The trend of prior studies. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 14(2), 1–16.Google Scholar
  108. Montealegre, R. (2001). Four visions of e-commerce in Latin America in the year 2010. Thunderbird International Business Review, 43(6), 717–735.Google Scholar
  109. Moore, J. F. (1993). Predators and prey: A new ecology of competition. Harvard Business Review, 71(3), 75–86.Google Scholar
  110. Moore, J. F. (1996). The death of competition: Leadership and strategy in the age of business ecosystems. New York: HarperBusiness.Google Scholar
  111. Moore, J. F. (2006). Business ecosystems and the view from the firm. Antitrust Bulletin, 51, 31.Google Scholar
  112. Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F., & Schindehutte, M. (2001). Towards integration: Understanding entrepreneurship through frameworks. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2(1), 35–49.Google Scholar
  113. Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F., Schindehutte, M., & Spivack, A. J. (2012). Framing the entrepreneurial experience. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36(1), 11–40.Google Scholar
  114. Nair, M., Kuppusamy, M., & Davison, R. (2005). A longitudinal study on the global digital divide problem: Strategies to close cross-country digital gap. The Business Review, Cambridge, 4(1), 315–326.Google Scholar
  115. Neck, H. M., Meyer, G. D., Cohen, B., & Corbett, A. C. (2004). An entrepreneurial system view of new venture creation. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(2), 190–208.Google Scholar
  116. Ngwenyama, O., & Morawczynski, O. (2009). Factors affecting ICT expansion in emerging economies: An analysis of ICT infrastructure expansion in five Latin American countries. Information Technology for Development, 15(4), 237–258. doi: 10.1002/itdj.20128.Google Scholar
  117. Nottebohm, O., Manyika, J., & Chui, M. (2012, April 3). Sizing the Internet economy in emerging countries. Retrieved June 30, 2013, from
  118. Oakey, R. (2007). Clustering and the R&D management of high-technology small firms: In theory and practice. R&D Management, 37(3), 237–248. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9310.2007.00472.x.Google Scholar
  119. OECD. (2011). Indicators of entrepreneurial determinants. Available at: Accessed 20 Aug 2013.
  120. Osterwalder, A., Lagha, S. B., & Pigneur, Y. (2002). An ontology for developing e-business models. IFIP DsiAge. Dorigny.Google Scholar
  121. Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2002). An e-business model ontology for modeling e-business. Paper presented at the 15th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference. Bled.Google Scholar
  122. Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation–a handbook for visionaires, game changers, and challengers. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  123. Pateli, A., & Giaglis, G. (2003). A framework for understanding and analysing e-business models. Paper presented at the Bled Electronic Commerce Conference. Bled.Google Scholar
  124. Pitelis, C. (2012). Clusters, entrepreneurial ecosystem co-creation, and appropriability: A conceptual framework. Industrial and Corporate Change, 21(6), 1359–1388.Google Scholar
  125. Qvillberg, J., & Gustafsson, A. (2012). Implementing lean startup methodology-An evaluation. (Master of Science Thesis in the Master Degree Programme), Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. (Report No. E 2012:074).Google Scholar
  126. Rangaswamy, N., & Nair, S. (2012). The PC in an Indian urban slum: Enterprise and entrepreneurship in ICT4D 2.0. Information Technology for Development, 18(2), 163–180.Google Scholar
  127. Ries E. The lean startup: How today’s entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. 1st ed. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group; 2011.Google Scholar
  128. Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  129. Rohm, A. J., Kashyap, V., Brashear, T. G., & Milne, G. R. (2004). The use of online marketplaces for competitive advantage: A Latin American perspective. The Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 19(6), 372–385.Google Scholar
  130. Sako, M. (2012). Business models for strategy and innovation. Communications of the ACM, 55(7), 22–24. doi: 10.1145/2209249.2209259.Google Scholar
  131. Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development; an inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle (T. f. t. G. b. Red- & v. Opie, Trans. T. Publishers Ed. 16 ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Shailer, G. (1994). Capitalists and entrepreneurs in owner-managed firms. International Small Business Journal, 12(3), 33–41.Google Scholar
  133. Simon, S. J. (2004). Critical success factors for electronic services: Challenges for developing countries. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 7(2), 31–53.Google Scholar
  134. Simpson, M., & Docherty, A. J. (2004). E-commerce adoption support and advice for UK SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(3), 315–328.Google Scholar
  135. Sinkovics, R. R., & Bell, J. D. (2005). Current perspectives on international entrepreneurship and the internet. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3(4), 247–249.Google Scholar
  136. Sipola, S., Mainela, T., & Puhakka, V. (2013). Understanding and uncovering startup ecosystem structures. Paper presented at the First International Entrepreneurship Research Exemplar Conference, Catania.Google Scholar
  137. Soriano, D. R., & Huarng, K.-H. (2013). Innovation and entrepreneurship in knowledge industries. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 1964–1969.
  138. Souitaris, V., & Cohen, M. (2003). Internet-business or just business?: Impact of ‘Internet-Specific’ strategies on venture performance. European Management Journal, 21(4), 421–437.
  139. Stam N, Buschmann S. Lessons on business virtual incubation services. In: infoDev, editor. Information for development program. Zeist: Triodos Facet; 2011.Google Scholar
  140. Stockdale, R., & Standing, C. (2004). Benefits and barriers of electronic marketplace participation: An SME perspective. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 17(4), 301–311.Google Scholar
  141. Stockdale, R., & Standing, C. (2006). A classification model to support SME e-commerce adoption initiatives. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 13(3), 381–394.Google Scholar
  142. Tapscott, D. (1996). The digital economy: Promise and peril in the age of networked intelligence (Vol. 1). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  143. Taylor, M., & Murphy, A. (2004). SMEs and e-business. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(3), 280–289.Google Scholar
  144. Large and successful Latin American e-Businesses. Retrieved July, 2013, from
  145. Thewarapperuma, A. (2013). East African virtual incubation pilot to launch in Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved January 17, 2013, from
  146. Timmers, P. (1998). Business models for electronic markets. Electronic Markets, 8(2), 3–8.Google Scholar
  147. Travica, B. (2002). Diffusion of electronic commerce in developing countries: The case of Costa Rica. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 5(1), 4–24.Google Scholar
  148. UN. (2013). Global Economic Prospects Report 2013. New York.Google Scholar
  149. Urquhart, C. (2013). Grounded theory for qualitative research, a practical guide. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  150. Van de Ven, A. H. (1993). The development of an infrastructure for entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(3), 211–230.Google Scholar
  151. Van de Ven, A. H., Hudson, R., & Schroeder, D. M. (1984). Designing new business startups: Entrepreneurial, organizational, and ecological considerations. Journal of Management, 10(1), 87–108.Google Scholar
  152. Waesche, N. M. (2003). Internet entrepreneurship en Europe: Venture failure and the timing of telecommunications reform. Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  153. Wall, B., Jagdev, H., & Browne, J. (2007). A review of eBusiness and digital business—applications, models and trends. Production Planning and Control, 18(3), 239–260. doi: 10.1080/09537280601127245.Google Scholar
  154. Weill, P., & Woerner, S. L. (2013). Optimizing your digital business model. MIT Sloan Management Review, 54(3), 71–78.Google Scholar
  155. Wielicki, T., & Arendt, L. (2010). A knowledge-driven shift in perception of ICT implementation barriers: Comparative study of US and European SMEs. Journal of Information Science, 36(2), 162–174. doi: 10.1177/0165551509354417.Google Scholar
  156. Woon Kian, C., Shafaghi, M., & Boon Leing, T. (2011). Development of a business-to-business critical success factors (B2B CSFs) framework for Chinese SMEs. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 29(5), 517–533.Google Scholar
  157. Wymer, S., & Regan, E. A. (2011). Influential factors in the adoption and use of E-business and E-commerce information technology (EEIT) by small & medium businesses. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 9(1), 56.Google Scholar
  158. Yau, A., & Murphy, C. (2013). Is a rigorous Agile methodology the best development strategy for small scale tech startups? Department of Computer & Information Science Technical Reports (CIS): University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  159. Zahir, S. (2008). Promoting development potentials with web applications: An E-marketplace for horticulture businesses in a developing country. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 12(2), 269–281.Google Scholar
  160. Zahra, S. A., & Nambisan, S. (2012). Entrepreneurship and strategic thinking in business ecosystems. Business Horizons, 55(3), 219–229.
  161. Zakaria, M. S., & Janom, N. (2011). Developing and validating readiness measures of inter-organizational E-commerce on SMEs. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 16(3), 1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.jom.2006.07.004.Google Scholar
  162. Zhu, K., Kraemer, K. L., & Xu, S. (2006). The process of innovation assimilation by firms in different countries: A technology diffusion perspective on E-business. Management Science, 52(10), 1557–1576. doi: 10.2307/20110629.Google Scholar
  163. Zimmerman, H.-D. (2000). Understanding the digital economy: Challengers for new business models. Paper presented at the Americas Conference on Information Systems. Long Beach, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerardo Quinones
    • 1
  • Brian Nicholson
    • 1
  • Richard Heeks
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Development InformaticsManchester Business School, University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Centre for Development InformaticsUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations