Advertisement

Anodic TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Effect of Electrolyte Properties on Self Ordering of Pore Cells

  • Sorachon Yoriya
Chapter

Abstract

The formation of self-organized, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays have been widely studied with an aim to enable precise control of nanotube morphologies and properties. Electrochemical anodization process has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity, low cost, and reliable fabrication technique for the arrayed nanotubular films. This work presents a facile pathway to achieve the uniform anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays with open pores through systematically manipulating the synthesis parameters and properly incorporating the solvent additives. Using diethylene glycol containing hydrofluoric acid as the electrolyte model, the conductivity-titanium concentration relation has been investigated, and thus the self ordering regimes in terms of construction architecture of nanopores have been established. The porous structure could be obtained only in the critical range of low electrolyte conductivity of approximately <100 μS cm−1, while the electrolyte with higher conductivity was found to yield the well ordered nanotube arrays. Formation of the pore cell structures is strongly dependent upon the combination effect of anodization voltage, electrolyte properties and composition.

Keywords

Tio2 nanotube arrays Electrochemical anodization Electrolyte properties Self-ordering regimes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgment

The author acknowledges the National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC) for providing facilities and research funding through the Ceramics Technology Research Unit. Partial support of this work through the Material Research Institute, the Pennsylvania State University USA, is also gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Mor GK, Varghese OK, Paulose M, Shankar K and Grimes CA, (2006) A Review on Highly ordered, Vertically Oriented TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Fabrication, Material Properties, and Solar Energy Applications. Sol Energ Mat Sol Cells 90:2011-2075.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mor GK, Varghese OK, Paulose M, Mukherjee N, Grimes CA, (2003) Fabrication of Tapered, Conical-Shaped Titania Nanotubes. J Mat Res 18:2588-2593.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grimes CA, Mor GK (2009) TiO2 nanotube arrays: synthesis, properties, and applications. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gong D, Grimes CA, Varghese OK, Hu WC, Singh RS, Chen Z, Dickey EC, (2001) Titanium Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Anodic Oxidation. J Mat Res 16:3331-3334.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bauer S, Kleber S, Schmuki P, (2006) TiO2 nanotubes: Tailoring the geometry in H3PO4/HF electrolytes. Electrochem Comm 8:1321-1325.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Habazaki H, Fushimi K, Shimizu K, Skeldon P, Thompson GE, (2007) Fast Migration of Fluoride Ions in Growing Anodic Titanium Oxide. Electrochem Comm 9:1222–1227.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ruan CM, Paulose M, Varghese OK, Mor GK, Grimes CA, (2005) Fabrication of Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays using an Organic Electrolyte. J Phys Chem B 109:15754-15759.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paulose M, Shankar K, Yoriya S, Prakasam HE, Varghese OK, Mor GK, Latempa TA, Fitzgerald A, Grimes CA, (2006) Anodic Growth of Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays to 134 um in Length. J Phys Chem B 110:16179-16184.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoriya S, Prakasam HE, Varghese OK, Shankar K, Paulose M, Mor GK, Latempa TJ, Grimes CA, (2006) Initial Studies on the Hydrogen Gas Sensing Properties of Highly-Ordered High Aspect Ratio TiO2 Nanotube-Arrays 20 um to 222 um in Length. Sens Lett 4:334-339.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paulose, M., H. E. Prakasam, O. K. Varghese, L. Peng, K. C. Popat, G. K. Mor, T. A. Desai and C. A. Grimes, (2007) TiO2 Nanotube Arrays of 1000 um Length by Anodization of Titanium Foil: Phenol Red Diffusion. J Phys Chem C 111:14992-14997.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paulose M, Prakasam HE, Varghese OK, Peng L, Popat KC, Mor GK, Desai TA, Grimes CA, (2007) TiO2 Nanotube Arrays of 1000 um Length by Anodization of Titanium Foil: Phenol Red Diffusion. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 111:14992.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ghicov A, Tsuchiya H, Macak JM, Schmuki P, (2005) Titanium oxide nanotubes prepared in phosphate electrolytes. Electrochem Comm 7:505-509.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Macak JM, Tsuchiya H, Schmuki P, (2005) High-Aspect-Ratio TiO2 Nanotubes by Anodization of Titanium. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 44:2100-2102.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tsuchiya, H., J. M. Macak, L. Taveira, E. Balaur, A. Ghicov, K. Sirotna and P. Schmuki, (2005) Self-Organized TiO2 Nanotubes Prepared in Ammonium Fluoride Containing Acetic Acid Electrolytes. Electrochemistry Communications 7:576-580.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Izutsu, K., (2002) Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Solutions Wiley-VCH, New York.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yoriya, S. and C. A. Grimes, (2011) Self-Assembled Anodic TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Electrolyte Properties and their Effect on Resulting Morphologies. Journal of Materials Chemistry 21:102-108.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sorachon Yoriya
    • 1
  1. 1.National Metal and Materials Technology CenterKlong LuangThailand

Personalised recommendations