Advertisement

Introduction to Technological Innovation

  • Elias G. Carayannis
  • Elpida T. Samara
  • Yannis L. Bakouros
Chapter
Part of the Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management book series (ITKM)

Abstract

At present, the life cycle of products, i.e. the time span from a product launch in the market until it becomes mature, is constantly shrinking. In fact, in some sectors, such as personal computers, the technological ageing of products takes place within just a few months. Therefore, the capacity to introduce new products in the market anticipating their competitors, earning in this way significant shares of sales, constitutes a big competitive advantage for companies. Companies, hence, should be in a position to constantly ‘innovate’ in order to preserve and improve their market position. Many would define innovation as ‘something new, an invention, a new idea’. In reality though, innovation does not only constitute the birth of a new product or process-related idea; it does include all stages, from the design and the evaluation of the way this idea is translated into action effectively. An innovation takes effect with the first commercial transaction regarding a new or improved accessory, product, process or system. On the contrary, the invention is an idea, a design or a model of an improved or new accessory that in most of the times does not result in any commercial transaction, although it could lead to a patent. Many researches have shown that innovative enterprises, namely the ones that constantly innovate, present on average double profit compared to the rest. However, innovation management is particularly difficult, hence the failure of many new ideas to result in successful new products or services. For this reason, various innovation management models have been developed.

Keywords

Technological Innovation Innovation Process Innovative Activity Uncertainty Avoidance Organizational Innovation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Amabile T (1996) Creativity in context: update to the social psychology of creativity. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  2. Arieti S (1976) Creativity the magic synthesis. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Barney JB (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. J Manage 17:99–120Google Scholar
  4. Baruk J (1997) Innovativeness of Polish enterprises in the initial period of system transformation. Technovation 17(9):477–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carayannis E (1994a) A multi-national, resource-based view of training and development and the strategic management of technological learning: keys for social and corporate survival and success. In: 39th International council for small business annual world conference, Strasbourg, France, June 27–29Google Scholar
  6. Carayannis E (1994b) The strategic management of technological learning from a dynamically adaptive high tech marketing perspective: sustainable competitive advantage through effective supplier-customer interfacing, University of Illinois, Chicago/American Management Association Research Symposium on Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Paris, France, June 29–30Google Scholar
  7. Carayannis E (1994c) Gestion Strategique de l’Acquisition des Savoir-Faire, Le Progrès Technique, no. 1, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  8. Carayannis E, Alexander J (1997) The role of knowledge exchange in trust, co-opetition and post-capitalist economics, paper presented at the European Institute for the Advanced Study of Management, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  9. Carayannis E, Alexander J (1998a) The wealth of knowledge: converting intellectual property to intellectual capital in co-opetitive research and technology management settings. Int J Technol Manag 18(3/4):326–352Google Scholar
  10. Carayannis E, Alexander J (1998b) Secrets of success and failure in commercializing US government RandD Laboratories technologies: a structured case study approach. Int J Technol Manag 18(3/4):246–269Google Scholar
  11. Carayannis E, Jorge J (1998c) Bridging government-university-industry technological learning disconnects: a comparative study of training and development policies and practices in the US, Japan, Germany, and France. Technovation 18(6/7):383–407 (Note: 1998 Recipient of two Emerald Management Reviews Citations - Citation of Excellence for Practical Implications and Citation of Excellence for Readability)Google Scholar
  12. Carayannis E, Alexander J (2001) Virtual, wireless mannah: a co-opetitive analysis of the broadband satellite industry. Technovation 21(12):759–766Google Scholar
  13. Carayannis E, Gonzalez E (2003) Creativity and innovation = competitiveness? In: Shavinina LV (ed) When, how, and why, The international handbook on innovation, part VIII, chapter 3. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  14. Carayannis E, Gonzalez E (2003) Creativity and Innovation = Competitiveness? When, How, and Why, The International Handbook on Innovation, Larisa V. Shavinina (ed.), Part VIII, Chapter 3, Elsevier Press, OctoberGoogle Scholar
  15. Carayannis E, et al (2003) A Cross-Cultural Learning Strategy for Entrepreneurship Education: Outline of Key Concepts and Lessons Learned from a Comparative Study of Entrepreneurship Students in France and the US, Technovation, 23(9): 757–771, NOTE: Recipient of Emerald Management Reviews Citation of Excellence for Research ImplicationsGoogle Scholar
  16. Carayannis EG, Provance M (2008) Measuring firm innovativeness. Int J Innov Regional Dev 1(1):90–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christensen CM (1997) The innovator’s dilemma: when disruptive technologies cause great firms to fail. Harvard Business School Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  18. Coombs R, Narandren P, Richards A (1996) A literature-based innovation output indicator. Res Policy 25(4):403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper JR (1998) A multidimensional approach to the adoption of innovation. Manage Decis 36(8):493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coriat B, Weinstein O (2002) Organizations, firms and institutions in the generation of innovation. Res Policy 31(2):273–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dacey JS, Lennon KH (1998) Understanding creativity: the interplay of biological, psychological and social factors. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  22. Damanpour F (1996) Organizational complexity and innovation: developing and testing multiple contingency models. Manag Sci 42(5):693–716 (Organizational innovation: a meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators. Acad Manag J 34(3):555–590, 1991)Google Scholar
  23. Diwan RK, Chakraborty C (1991) High technology and international competitiveness. Praeger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Drazin R, Glynn MA, Kazanjian RK (1999) Multilevel theorizing about creativity in organizations: A sensemaking perspective. Acad Manage Rev 42(2):125–145Google Scholar
  25. Drejer A (2002) Situations for innovation management: towards a contingency model. Eur J Innovation Manage 5(1):4–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Drucker P (1985) The discipline of innovation. Harv Bus Rev 76(6):149–157Google Scholar
  27. Evangelista R, Sandven T, Sirilli G, Smith K (1998) Measuring innovation in European industry. Int J Econ Bus 5(3):311–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evangelista R, Iammarino S, Mastrostefano V, Silvani A (2001) Measuring the regional dimension of innovation. Lessons from the Italian innovation survey. Technovation 21:733–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feeny S, Rogers M (2003) Innovation and performance: benchmarking Australian firms. Aust Econ Rev 36(3):253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Florida RL, Kenney M (1990) The breakthrough illusion: corporate America’s failure to move from innovation to mass production. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Freeman CJ, Soete L (1982) Unemployment and technical innovation: a study of long waves in economic development. Frances Pinter, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Gundry LK, Prather CW, Kickul JR (1994) Building the creative organization. Org Dyn 22(4):22–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hagedoorn J, Cloodt M (2003) Measuring innovative performance: is there an advantage in using multiple indicators? Res Policy 32:1365–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hindle B, Lubar SD (1986) Engines of change: the American industrial revolution, 1790–1860. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  35. Hofstede G (1980) Motivation, leadership and organization: do American theories apply abroad? Organ Dyn 9:42–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hollenstein H (1996) A composite indicator of a firm’s innovativeness, an empirical analysis based on survey data for Swiss manufacturing. Res Policy 25:633–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Howells J (1995) A socio-cognitive approach to innovation, Research Policy, 24(6):883–894Google Scholar
  38. Jonash RS, Sommerlatte T (1999) The innovation premium. Perseus Publishing, BostonGoogle Scholar
  39. Kahn KB (2002) An exploratory investigation of new product forecasting practices. J Product Innovation Manage 19(2):133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kao J (1996) Jamming: the art and discipline of business creativity. HarperCollins, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaplan S (1999) Discontinuous innovation and the growth paradox. Strategy Leadership 27(2):16–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Killman R (1985) Gaining control of the corporate culture. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  43. Kneller G (1965) The art and science of creativity. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Koen P, Kohli P (1998) Idea generation: who has the most profitable ideas. Eng Manage J 10(4):35–40Google Scholar
  45. Lansiti M (1997) From technological potential to product performance: an empirical analysis. Res Policy 26(3):345–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leenders MAAM, Wierenga B (2002) The effectiveness of different mechanisms for integrating marketing and RandD. J Prod Innovat Manage 19(4):305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mansfield E, Rapport AR, Wagner S, Beardsley G (1977) Social and private rates of return from industrial innovations. Q J Econ 91(2):221–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Michalisin M (2001) Validity of annual report assertions about innovativeness: an empirical investigation. J Bus Res 53:151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nelson RR (1977) In search of useful theory of innovation. New Holland Res Policy 6:37–76Google Scholar
  50. Nelson RR, Winter SG (1982) An evolutionary theory of economic change. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Nelson RR (2000) Technology, Institutions, and Evolutionary Economic Theory, MimeoGoogle Scholar
  52. Parthasarthy R, Hammond J (2002) Product innovation input and outcome: moderating effects of the innovation process, Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 19(1):75–91Google Scholar
  53. Penrose ET (1959) The theory of the growth of the firm. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Peters J (1996) Messung und Bewertung des Innovationsverhalten im deutschen Automobilzuliefersektor - Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung [Measurement and valuation of the innovative behavior within the German automobile supply industry - evidence of an empirical study]. Working paper series of the Department of Economics, 151, University of Augsburg Riordan, M. H., D. E. SappinGoogle Scholar
  55. Porter ME (1985) Competitive advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Porter M (1990) The competitive advantage of nations. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Pospisil V (1996) New constellations. Ind Week 245(14):6Google Scholar
  58. Rogers EM (1995) Diffusion of innovations. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Rogers EM, Shoemaker FF (1971) Communication of innovations: a cross-cultural approach. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Rosenberg N (1982) Inside the black box: technology and economics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  61. Santarelli E, Piergiovanni R (1996) Analyzing literature-based innovation output indicators: the Italian experience. Res Policy 25(5):698–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schumpeter JA (1934) Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Duncker and Humblot, Berlin (reproduced 1997)Google Scholar
  63. Schumpeter JA (1942) Capitalism, socialism and democracy. Harper Brothers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Tidd J (2001) Innovation management in context: environment, organization and performance. Int J Manage Rev 3(3):169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tornatzky LG, Fleischer M (1990) The process of technological innovation. Lexington Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Tushman M, Anderson P (1990) Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: A cyclical model of technological change, Administrative Science Quarterly 35:604–633Google Scholar
  67. Von Braun C-F (1997) The innovation war. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  68. Woodman RW, Schoenfeldt LF (1990) An interactionist model of creative Behaviour. J Creative Behav 24:10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zaltman G, Duncan R, Holbek J (1973) Innovations and organizations. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elias G. Carayannis
    • 1
  • Elpida T. Samara
    • 2
  • Yannis L. Bakouros
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Information Systems and Technology Management School of BusinessGeorge Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Western MacedoniaKozaniGreece

Personalised recommendations