Verifiable Computation over Large Database with Incremental Updates

  • Xiaofeng Chen
  • Jin Li
  • Jian Weng
  • Jianfeng Ma
  • Wenjing Lou
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8712)

Abstract

The notion of verifiable database (VDB) enables a resource-constrained client to securely outsource a very large database to an untrusted server so that it could later retrieve a database record and update a record by assigning a new value. Also, any attempt by the server to tamper with the data will be detected by the client. When the database undergoes frequent while small modifications, the client must re-compute and update the encrypted version (ciphertext) on the server at all times. For very large data, it is extremely expensive for the resources-constrained client to perform both operations from scratch. In this paper, we formalize the notion of verifiable database with incremental updates (Inc-VDB). Besides, we propose a general Inc-VDB framework by incorporating the primitive of vector commitment and the encrypt-then-incremental MAC mode of encryption. We also present a concrete Inc-VDB scheme based on the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption. Furthermore, we prove that our construction can achieve the desired security properties.

Keywords

Verifiable Database Incremental Cryptography Outsourcing Computations Vector Commitment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Atallah, M.J., Frikken, K.B.: Securely outsourcing linear algebra computations. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security (AsiaCCS), pp. 48–59 (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atallah, M.J., Pantazopoulos, K.N., Rice, J.R., Spafford, E.H.: Secure outsourcing of scientific computations. Advances in Computers 54, 216–272 (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Backes, M., Fiore, D., Reischuk, R.M.: Verifiable Delegation of Computation on Outsourced Data. In: Proceedings of the ACM conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), pp. 863–874 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ben-Or, M., Goldwasser, S., Kilian, J., Wigderson, A.: Multi-prover interactive proofs: How to remove intractability assumptions. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC), pp. 113–131 (1988)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bellare, M., Goldreich, O., Goldwasser, S.: Incremental cryptography: The case of hashing and signing. In: Desmedt, Y.G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1994. LNCS, vol. 839, pp. 216–233. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bellare, M., Goldreich, O., Goldwasser, S.: Incremental Cryptography and Application to Virus Protection. In: Proceedings of the 27th ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (STOC), pp. 45–56 (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buonanno, E., Katz, J., Yung, M.: Incremental Unforgeable Encryption. In: Matsui, M. (ed.) FSE 2001. LNCS, vol. 2355, pp. 109–124. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blum, M., Luby, M., Rubinfeld, R.: Program result checking against adaptive programs and in cryptographic settings. DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, pp. 107–118 (1991)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blum, M., Luby, M., Rubinfeld, R.: Self-testing/correcting with applications to numerical problems. Journal of Computer and System Science, 549–595 (1993)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boneh, D., Lynn, B., Shacham, H.: Short signatures from the Weil pairings. In: Boyd, C. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2248, pp. 514–532. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bellare, M., Namprempre, C.: Authenticated Encryption: Relations Among Notions and Analysis of the Generic Composition Paradigm. In: Okamoto, T. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1976, pp. 531–545. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Benabbas, S., Gennaro, R., Vahlis, Y.: Verifiable delegation of computation over large datasets. In: Rogaway, P. (ed.) CRYPTO 2011. LNCS, vol. 6841, pp. 111–131. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Catalano, D., Fiore, D.: Vector commitments and their applications. In: Kurosawa, K., Hanaoka, G. (eds.) PKC 2013. LNCS, vol. 7778, pp. 55–72. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Camenisch, J., Hohenberger, S., Pedersen, M.: Batch Verification of Short Signatures. In: Naor, M. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2007. LNCS, vol. 4515, pp. 246–263. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Camenisch, J., Kohlweiss, M., Soriente, C.: An accumulator based on bilinear maps and efficient revocation for anonymous credentials. In: Jarecki, S., Tsudik, G. (eds.) PKC 2009. LNCS, vol. 5443, pp. 481–500. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Camenisch, J., Lysyanskaya, A.: Dynamic accumulators and application to efficient revocation of anonymous credentials. In: Yung, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 2002. LNCS, vol. 2442, pp. 61–76. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Canetti, R., Riva, B., Rothblum, G.: Practical delegation of computation using multiple servers. In: Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), pp. 445–454 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen, X., Li, J., Susilo, W.: Efficient Fair Conditional Payments for Outsourcing Computations. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 7(6), 1687–1694 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen, X., Li, J., Ma, J., Tang, Q., Lou, W.: New algorithms for secure outsourcing of modular exponentiations. In: Foresti, S., Yung, M., Martinelli, F. (eds.) ESORICS 2012. LNCS, vol. 7459, pp. 541–556. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldwasser, S., Kalai, Y.T., Rothblum, G.N.: Delegating computation: interactive proofs for muggles. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (STOC), pp. 113–122 (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goldwasser, S., Micali, S., Rackoff, C.: The knowledge complexity of interactive proof-systems. SIAM Journal on Computing 18(1), 186–208 (1989)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gennaro, R., Gentry, C., Parno, B.: Non-interactive verifiable computing: Outsourcing computation to untrusted workers. In: Rabin, T. (ed.) CRYPTO 2010. LNCS, vol. 6223, pp. 465–482. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kilian, J.: A note on efficient zero-knowledge proofs and arguments. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC), pp. 723–732 (1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kilian, J.: Improved efficient arguments. In: Coppersmith, D. (ed.) CRYPTO 1995. LNCS, vol. 963, pp. 311–324. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Micali, S.: CS proofs. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), pp. 436–453 (1994)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mironov, I., Pandey, O., Reingold, O., Segev, G.: Incremental Deterministic Public-Key Encryption. In: Pointcheval, D., Johansson, T. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2012. LNCS, vol. 7237, pp. 628–644. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Martel, C.U., Nuckolls, G., Devanbu, P.T., Gertz, M., Kwong, A., Stubblebine, S.G.: A general model for authenticated data structures. Algorithmica 39(1), 21–41 (2004)CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Naor, M., Nissim, K.: Certificate revocation and certificate update. In: Proceedings of the 7th conference on USENIX Security Symposium, vol. 7, p. 17 (1998)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nguyen, L.: Accumulators from bilinear pairings and applications. In: Menezes, A. (ed.) CT-RSA 2005. LNCS, vol. 3376, pp. 275–292. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Papamanthou, C., Tamassia, R.: Time and space efficient algorithms for two-party authenticated data structures. In: Qing, S., Imai, H., Wang, G. (eds.) ICICS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4861, pp. 1–15. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tamassia, R., Triandopoulos, N.: Certification and authentication of data structures. In: Alberto Mendelzon Workshop on Foundations of Data Management (2010), http://www.cs.bu.edu/~nikos/papers/cads.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaofeng Chen
    • 1
    • 4
  • Jin Li
    • 2
    • 4
  • Jian Weng
    • 3
  • Jianfeng Ma
    • 1
  • Wenjing Lou
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service Networks (ISN)Xidian UniversityXi’anP.R. China
  2. 2.School of Computer Science and Educational SoftwareGuangzhou UniversityGuangzhouP.R. China
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceJinan UniversityGuangzhouP.R. China
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations