The Biodegradation of Azo Dyes by Actinobacteria

  • Azeem KhalidEmail author
  • Shahid Mahmood
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Synthetic dyes have wide application in the textile, leather, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, paper and food industry. According to an estimate, global production of synthetic dyes is more than 700,000 tonnes and textile sector consumes about 60 % of the total production of dyes (Robinson et al. in Biresour Technol 77:247–255, 2001; Shinde and Thorat in Rev Res 2:1–7, 2013).


Chemical Oxygen Demand Biological Oxygen Demand Lignin Peroxidase Streptomyces Species Laccase Enzyme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge greatly the Pakistan Science Foundation and Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for financial support for research on the biodegradation of azo dyes.


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesPMAS Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan

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