Skip to main content


  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Atlas of Imaging Anatomy


The functions of the spine are apparently divergent: axial stabilisation of the upright position and mobility, indispensable for the movement of the segments. The spine plays a crucial role, together with the skull, in the protection of the neuraxis and enables the connection with other organs through the foramina crossed by the nervous roots. We can therefore logically distinguish between the containing part and the content of the spine, the first one consisting of the bones, muscles, and ligaments of the vertebral column and the second one consisting of the spinal cord and cauda equina, nervous roots, meninges, epidural vessels, and adipose tissue.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J (2007) Neurology in clinical practice, 5th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann Elsevier, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  2. Frymoyer JW, Wiesel SW, An S et al (2003) The adult and pediatric spine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  3. Greenberg MS (2010) Handbook of neurosurgery, 7th edn. Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc, New York

    Google Scholar 

  4. Haaga JR, Vikram SD, Forsting M et al (2008) CT and MRI of the whole body. Mosby, St. Louis

    Google Scholar 

  5. Hackney DB (1992) Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Normal anatomy. Top Magn Reson Imaging 4:1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross J et al (2006) Diagnostic and surgical imaging anatomy brain, head & neck, spine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  7. Manelfe C et al (eds) (1992) Imaging of the spine and spinal cord. Raven, New York

    Google Scholar 

  8. Netter FH, Summit NJ (2010) Atlas of human anatomy, 5th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  9. Pfirrmann CW, Binkert CA, Zanetti M et al (2001) MR morphology of alar ligaments and occipitoatlantoaxial joints: study in 50 asymptomatic subjects. Radiology 218:133–137

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Ricci C, Cova M, Kang YS et al (1990) Normal age-related patterns of cellular and fatty bone marrow distribution in the axial skeleton: MR imaging study. Radiology 177:83–88

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Ross JS, Brant-Zawadzki M, Moore KR et al (2004) Diagnostic imaging: spine. Amirsys Elsevier Saunders, Salt Lake City

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mario Crispino .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Crispino, M., Crispino, E. (2015). Spine. In: Olivetti, L. (eds) Atlas of Imaging Anatomy. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-10749-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-10750-9

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics