Atomic-Scale Friction Measurements in Ultra-High Vacuum

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews friction force microscopy experiments that reveal atomic-scale processes in single asperity contacts during sliding. Different regimes of atomic friction will be discussed including smooth sliding with low dissipation and the dissipative atomicstick–slip motion, where the tip jumps from one lattice site to the next. Furthermore, effects owing to finite temperatures, varying scan velocity and the influence of surface structures on the atomic friction are presented. Finally, the empirical Prandtl-Tomlinson model is introduced, which explains well the main observations in atomic-scale friction force microscopy experiments.

References

  1. 1.
    C.M. Mate, G.M. McClelland, R. Erlandsson, S. Chiang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1942 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Maier, Y. Sang, T. Filleter, M. Grant, R. Bennewitz, E. Gnecco, E. Meyer, Phys. Rev. B 72, 245418 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Prandtl, ZAMM—J. Appl. Math. Mech./Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 8, 85 (1928)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.A. Tomlinson, Philos. Mag. Ser. 7(7), 905 (1929)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.A. Lantz, S.J. O’Shea, A.C.F. Hoole, M.E. Welland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 970 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.P. Cleveland, S. Manne, D. Bocek, P.K. Hansma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 403 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.P. Green, H. Lioe, J.P. Cleveland, R. Proksch, P. Mulvaney, J.E. Sader, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1988 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.E. Sader, I. Larson, P. Mulvaney, L.R. White, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3789 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T.R. Albrecht, S. Akamine, T.E. Carver, C.F. Quate, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 3386 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.L. Johnson, Contact Mechanics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Socoliuc, R. Bennewitz, E. Gnecco, E. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 134301 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.W. Carpick, D.F. Ogletree, M. Salmeron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1548 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Gnecco, R. Bennewitz, T. Gyalog, E. Meyer, J. Phys.-Condens. Matter 13, R619 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Luan, M.O. Robbins, Nature 435, 929 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Gyalog, M. Bammerlin, R. Lüthi, E. Meyer, H. Thomas, Europhys. Lett. (EPL) 31, 269 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Steiner, R. Roth, E. Gnecco, A. Baratoff, S. Maier, T. Glatzel, E. Meyer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 045414 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Hölscher, U.D. Schwarz, O. Zwörner, R. Wiesendanger, Phys. Rev. B 57, 2477 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Gnecco, Europhys. Lett. 91, 66008 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Schirmeisen, L. Jansen, H. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 71, 245403 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. Gnecco, R. Bennewitz, T. Gyalog, C. Loppacher, M. Bammerlin, E. Meyer, H.J. Guntherodt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1172 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Riedo, E. Gnecco, R. Bennewitz, E. Meyer, H. Brune, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 084502 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Sang, M. Dubé, M. Grant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 174301 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.G. Abel, S.Y. Krylov, J.W.M. Frenken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 166102 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Gyalog, H. Thomas, Europhys. Lett. 37, 195 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Weiss, F.-J. Elmer, Phys. Rev. B 53, 7539 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Hirano, Wear 254, 932 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    O.M. Braun, Y.S. Kivshar, The Frenkel-Kontorova Model: Concepts, Methods, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Luthi et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 1280 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R.W. Carpick, Q. Dai, D.F. Ogletree, M. Salmeron, Tribol. Lett. 5, 91 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Ishikawa, S. Okita, N. Minami, K. Miura, Surf. Sci. 445, 488 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    U. Landman, W.D. Luedtke, N.A. Burnham, R.J. Colton, Science 248, 454 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Bennewitz, T. Gyalog, M. Guggisberg, M. Bammerlin, E. Meyer, H.J. Guntherodt, Phys. Rev. B 60, R11301 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    N. Gosvami, T. Filleter, P. Egberts, R. Bennewitz, Tribol. Lett. 39, 19 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Bennewitz, E. Gnecco, T. Gyalog, E. Meyer, Tribol. Lett. 10, 51 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Enachescu, R.W. Carpick, D.F. Ogletree, M. Salmeron, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7694 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.K. Geim, Science 324, 1530 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    T. Filleter, R. Bennewitz, Phys. Rev. B 81, 155412 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Lee, Q. Li, W. Kalb, X.-Z. Liu, H. Berger, R.W. Carpick, J. Hone, Science 328, 76 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Enachescu, R.J.A. van den Oetelaar, R.W. Carpick, D.F. Ogletree, C.F.J. Flipse, M. Salmeron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1877 (1998)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Fusco, A. Fasolino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 699 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Dienwiebel, G.S. Verhoeven, N. Pradeep, J.W.M. Frenken, J.A. Heimberg, H.W. Zandbergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 126101 (2004)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S.Y. Krylov, K.B. Jinesh, H. Valk, M. Dienwiebel, J.W.M. Frenken, Phys. Rev. E 71, 065101 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Socoliuc, E. Gnecco, S. Maier, O. Pfeiffer, A. Baratoff, R. Bennewitz, E. Meyer, Science 313, 207 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    E. Gnecco, A. Socoliuc, S. Maier, J. Gessler, T. Glatzel, A. Baratoff, E. Meyer, Nanotechnology 20, 025501 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    M.A. Lantz, D. Wiesmann, B. Gotsmann, Nat. Nano. 4, 586 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. Roth, O.Y. Fajardo, J.J. Mazo, E. Meyer, E. Gnecco, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 083103 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    O.Y. Fajardo, E. Gnecco, J.J. Mazo, Phys. Rev. B 89, 075423 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. Gnecco, R. Bennewitz, E. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215501 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. Socoliuc, E. Gnecco, R. Bennewitz, E. Meyer, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115416 (2003)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    L. Jansen, H. Hölscher, H. Fuchs, A. Schirmeisen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 256101 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. Schirmeisen, L. Jansen, H. Holscher, H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 123108 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. Reimann, M. Evstigneev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 230802 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    X. Zhao, S.R. Phillpot, W.G. Sawyer, S.B. Sinnott, S.S. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 186102 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Evstigneev, A. Schirmeisen, L. Jansen, H. Fuchs, P. Reimann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 240601 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    K.L. Johnson, J. Woodhouse, Tribol. Lett. 5, 155 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. Nakamura, S. Wakunami, A. Natori, Phys. Rev. B 72, 235415 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Z. Tshiprut, S. Zelner, M. Urbakh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 136102 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    S.N. Medyanik, W.K. Liu, I.-H. Sung, R.W. Carpick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 136106 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    E. Gnecco, R. Roth, A. Baratoff, Phys. Rev. B 86, 035443 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    R. Roth, T. Glatzel, P. Steiner, E. Gnecco, A. Baratoff, E. Meyer, Tribol. Lett. 39, 63 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    H. Hölscher, D. Ebeling, U.D. Schwarz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 246105 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. Müller, M. Lohrmann, T. Kässer, O. Marti, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5066 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    E. Meyer, R. Luthi, L. Howald, M. Bammerlin, M. Guggisberg, H.J. Guntherodt, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 1285 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    P. Steiner, E. Gnecco, F. Krok, J. Budzioch, L. Walczak, J. Konior, M. Szymonski, E. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 186104 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    S. Maier, E. Gnecco, A. Baratoff, R. Bennewitz, E. Meyer, Phys. Rev. B 78, 045432 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. Filleter, W. Paul, R. Bennewitz, Phys. Rev. B 77, 035430 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. Maier, O. Pfeiffer, T. Glatzel, E. Meyer, T. Filleter, R. Bennewitz, Phys. Rev. B 75, 195408 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    D.F. Ogletree, R.W. Carpick, M. Salmeron, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3298 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    P. Steiner, E. Gnecco, T. Filleter, N. Gosvami, S. Maier, E. Meyer, R. Bennewitz, Tribol. Lett. 39, 321 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Q. Li, Y. Dong, A. Martini, R. Carpick, Tribol. Lett. 43, 369 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    M. Goryl, J. Budzioch, F. Krok, M. Wojtaszek, M. Kolmer, L. Walczak, J. Konior, E. Gnecco, M. Szymonski, Phys. Rev. B 85, 085308 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J.Y. Park, D.F. Ogletree, M. Salmeron, R.A. Ribeiro, P.C. Canfield, C.J. Jenks, P.A. Thiel, Science 309, 1354 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    J.Y. Park, D.F. Ogletree, M. Salmeron, C.J. Jenks, P.A. Thiel, J. Brenner, J.M. Dubois, J. Mater. Res. 23, 1488 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    V. Kalihari, G. Haugstad, C.D. Frisbie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 086102 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Campione, E. Fumagalli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 166103 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    H. Bluhm, U.D. Schwarz, K.P. Meyer, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 61, 525 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. Liley et al., Science 280, 273 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    G. Fessler et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 083119 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    E. Gnecco, O. Fajardo, C. Pina, J. Mazo, Tribol. Lett. 48, 33 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    S. Kawai et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 3968 (2014).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.IMDEA NanocienciaMadridSpain
  3. 3.University of BaselBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations