A RECIPE for Meaningful Gamification
- 15k Downloads
Meaningful gamification is the use of gameful and playful layers to help a user find personal connections that motivate engagement with a specific context for long-term change. While reward-based gamification can be useful for short-term goals and situations where the participants have no personal connections or intrinsic motivation to engage in a context, rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation and the long-term desire to engage with the real world context. If the goal is long-term change, then rewards should be avoided and other game-based elements used to create a system based on concepts of meaningful gamification. This article introduces six concepts—Reflection, Exposition, Choice, Information, Play, and Engagement—to guide designers of gamification systems that rely on non-reward-based game elements to help people find personal connections and meaning in a real world context.
KeywordsTheory Model Design User-based Motivation Framework Gamification
- Bartle, R. (1996). Hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades: Players who suit MUDs. Journal of MUD Research, 1(1). Available online at http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm.
- Brand, J. E., Knight, S. J. (2005) The narrative and ludic nexus in computer games: Diverse worlds II. Proceedings of the Digital Games Research Association Conference, Vancouver, Canada. Retrieved from http://www.digra.org/wp-content/uploads/digital-library/06278.57359.pdf
- Branigan, E. (2006). Projecting a camera: Language games in film theory. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Callois, R. (2001). Man, play and games. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
- Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2004). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
- Gwen, G. (2009). What is play? In search of a definition. Children to Red Hatters: Diverse Images and Issues of Play: Play and Culture Studies. 8. 1–13.Google Scholar
- Huizinga, J. (1955). Homo ludens: A study of the play element in culture. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
- Kohn, A. (1999). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
- Kolb, D. A., & Fry, R. (1975). Toward an applied theory of experiential learning. In C. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of group process. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Kramlinger, T., & Huberty, T. (1990). Behaviorism versus humanism. Training and Devleopment Journal, 44(12), 41–45.Google Scholar
- Lifelong Kindergarten Group (2013). About SCRATCH. Retrieved online from http://scratch.mit.edu/about/.
- Maroney, K. (2001, May). My entire waking life. The Games Journal. Retrieved from http://www.thegamesjournal.com/articles/MyEntireWakingLife.shtml
- Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Nicholson, S. (2012a, June). A user-centered theoretical framework for meaningful gamification. Paper Presented at Games+Learning+Society 8.0, Madison. Retrieved from online at http://scottnicholson.com/pubs/meaningfulframework.pdf
- Nicholson, S. (2012b, October). Strategies for meaningful gamification: Concepts behind transformative play and participatory museums. Presented at Meaningful Play 2012. Lansing. Retrieved from online at http://scottnicholson.com/pubs/meaningfulstrategies.pdf
- Nicholson, S. (2012c). Completing the experience: Debriefing in experiential educational games. In the Proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Society and Information Technologies. Winter Garden: International Institute of Informatics and Systemics. 117–121. Retrieved from online at http://scottnicholson.com/pubs/completingexperience.pdf
- Nicholson, S. (2013, June). Exploring gamification techniques for classroom management. Paper presented at Games + Learning + Society 9.0, Madison. Retrieved from online at http://scottnicholson.com/pubs/gamificationtechniquesclassroom.pdf
- Pink, D. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: Riverhead Books.Google Scholar
- Rose, D., & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal design for learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.Google Scholar
- Schamber, L. (1994). Relevance and information behavior. In M. E. Williams (Ed.), Annual review of information science and technology 29 (pp. 3–48). Medford, NJ: American Society for Information Science.Google Scholar
- Sheldon, L. (2011). The multiplayer classroom: Designing coursework as a game. Boston: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
- Simons, J. (2007). Narrative, games, and theory. Game Studies, 7(1). Retrieved from http://gamestudies.org/0701/articles/simons.
- Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.Google Scholar
- Sutton-Smith, B. (1997). The ambiguity of play. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Thiagarajan, S. (2004, February). Six phases of debriefing. Play for Performance. Retrieved from http://www.thiagi.com/pfp/IE4H/february2004.html
- Zichermann, G., & Cunningham, C. (2011). Gamification by design: Implementing game mechanics in web and mobile apps. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media.Google Scholar