Advertisement

Collaboration in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments

  • Anthony SteedEmail author
  • Ralph Schroeder

Abstract

There is a huge variety of tools for synchronous collaboration including instant messaging, audio conferencing, videoconferencing and other shared spaces. One type of tool, collaborative virtual environments (CVEs), allows users to share a 3D space as if they are there together. Today, most experiences of virtual environments (VEs), including games and social spaces, are constrained by the form of non-immersive interfaces that they use. In this chapter we review findings about how people interact in immersive technologies, that is large-screen displays such as CAVE-like displays, and how they provide a number of advantages over non-immersive systems. We argue that modern immersive systems can already support effective co-presence in constrained situations and that we should focus on understanding of what is needed for effective and engaging collaboration in a broader range of applications. We frame this discussion by looking at the topics of co-presence, representations of users and modalities of interacting with the VE. Different types of immersive technologies offer quite distinct advantages, and we discuss the importance of these differences for the future of CVE development.

Keywords

Synchronous collaboration Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVE’s) 3D Space Interaction Social space Immersive technologies Co-presence 

References

  1. Badler, N., Hollick, M., & Granieri, J. (1993). Real-time control of a virtual human using minimal sensors. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2(1), 82–86.Google Scholar
  2. Bailenson, J., & Beall, A. (2006). Transformed social interaction: Exploring the digital plasticity of avatars. In R. Schroeder & A.-S. Axelsson (Eds.), Avatars at work and play: Collaboration and interaction in shared virtual environments (pp. 1–16). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blascovich, J. (2002). Social influence within immersive virtual environments. In R. Schroeder (Ed.), The social life of avatars: Presence and interaction in shared virtual environments (pp. 127–145). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, B., & Bell, M. (2006). Play and sociability in there: Some lessons from online games for collaborative virtual environments. In R. Schroeder & A.-S. Axelsson (Eds.), Avatars at work and play: Collaboration and interaction in shared virtual environments (pp. 227–246). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, L., Farnham, S., & Stone, L. (2002). Lessons learned: Building and deploying shared virtual environments. In R. Schroeder & A.-S. Axelsson (Eds.), Avatars at work and play: Collaboration and interaction in shared virtual environments (pp. 90–111). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Churchill, E., Snowdon, D., & Munro, A. (Eds.). (2002). Collaborative virtual environments: Digital places and spaces for interaction. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Dit Picard, S. L., Degrande, S., Gransart, C., & Chaillou, C. (2002). VRML data sharing in the spin-3D CVE. In Proceeding of the seventh international conference on 3D Web technology (Tempe, Arizona, USA, February 24–28, 2002). Web3D’02 (pp. 165–172). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  8. Dou, M., Fuchs, H., & Frahm, J.-M. (2013). Scanning and tracking dynamic objects with commodity depth cameras. In 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) (pp. 99–106). IEEE.Google Scholar
  9. Finn, K., Sellen, A., & Wilbur, S. (Eds.). (1997). Video-mediated communication. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Friedman, D., & Tuchman, P. (2011). Virtual clones: Data-driven social navigation. In Intelligent virtual agents (Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 6895) (pp. 28–34). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Garau, M., Slater, M., Vinayagamoorhty, V., Brogni, A., Steed, A., & Sasse, M. A. (2003, April 5–10). The impact of avatar realism and eye gaze control on perceived quality of communication in a shared immersive virtual environment. In Proceedings of the SIG-CHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 309–316). Fort Lauderdale: ACM.Google Scholar
  12. Gaver, W. W., Sellen, A., Heath, C., & Luff, P. (1993, April). One is not enough: Multiple views in a media space. In Proceedings of INTERCHI’93 (pp. 335–341). Amsterdam: ACM.Google Scholar
  13. Gross, M., Würmlin, S., Naef, M., Lamboray, E., Spagno, C., Kunz, A., Koller-Meier, E., Svoboda, T., Van Gool, L., Lang, S., Strehlke, K., Moere, A. V., & Staadt, O. (2003). Blue-c: A spatially immersive display and 3D video portal for telepresence. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 22(3), 819–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heldal, I., Schroeder, R., Steed, A., Axelsson, A.-S., Spante, M., & Widestrom, J. (2005a). Immersiveness and symmetry in copresent scenarios. In Proceedings of IEEE VR (pp. 171–178). Bonn: IEEE.Google Scholar
  15. Heldal, I., Steed, A., Spante, M., Schroeder, R., Bengtsson, S., & Partanan, M. (2005b). Successes and failures in copresent situations. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 14 (5), 563–579.Google Scholar
  16. Hindmarsh, J., Fraser, M., Heath, C., Benford, S., & Greenhalgh, C. (2000). Object-focused interaction in collaborative virtual environments. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (ToCHI), 7, 477–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hinds, P., & Kiesler, S. (Eds.). (2002). Distributed work. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  18. Johnsen, K., Dickerson, R., Raij, A., Lok, B., Jackson, J., Shin, M., Hernandez, J., Stevens, A., & Lind, D. S. (2005, March 12–16). Experiences in using immersive virtual characters to educate medical communication skills. In Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE conference 2005 on Virtual Reality (pp. 179–186). Washington, DC: VR. IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  19. Jung, M., Fischer, R., Gleicher, M., Thingvold, J. A., & Bevan, M. (Eds.). (2000). Motion capture and editing: Bridging principle and practice. Natick: A K Peters.Google Scholar
  20. Kim, J., Kim, H., Tay, B. K., Muniyandi, M., Jordan, J., Mortensen, J., Oliveira, M., Slater, M., & Srinivasan, M. A. (2004). Transatlantic touch: A study of haptic collaboration over long distance. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13(3), 328–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pertaub, D.-P., Slater, M., & Barker, C. (2001). An experiment on public speaking anxiety in response to three different types of virtual audience. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pollick, F. E., Lestou, V., Ryu, J., & Cho, S. B. (2002). Estimating the efficiency of recognizing gender and affect from biological motion. Vision Research, 42, 2345–2355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Raskar, R., Welch, G., Cutts, M., Lake, A., Stesin, L., & Fuchs, H. (1998). The office of the future: A unified approach to image-based modeling and spatially immersive displays. In Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques SIGGRAPH’98 (pp. 179–188). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  24. Roberts, D., Wolff, R., Otto, O., & Steed, A. (2003). Constructing a Gazebo: Supporting team work in a tightly coupled, distributed task in virtual reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 16(6), 644–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sallnas, E.-L. (2004). The effect of modality on social presence, presence and performance in collaborative virtual environments. Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  26. Scheumie, M. J., van der Straaten, P., Krijn, M., & van der Mast, C. (2001). Research on presence in virtual reality: A survey. Cyberpsychology and Behaviour, 4(2), 183–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schroeder, R. (Ed.). (2002). The social life of avatars: Presence and interaction in shared virtual environments. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Schroeder, R. (2011). Being there together: Social interaction in virtual environments. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Schroeder, R., & Axelsson, A.-S. (Eds.). (2006). Avatars at work and play: Collaboration and interaction in shared virtual environments. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Schroeder, R., Steed, A., Axelsson, A.-S., Heldal, I., Abelin, Å., Wideström, J., Nilsson, A., & Slater, M. (2001). Collaborating in networked immersive spaces: As good as being there together? Computers and Graphics, 25, 781–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schroeder, R., Heldal, I., & Tromp, J. (2006). The usability of collaborative virtual environments and methods for the analysis of interaction. Presence: Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(6), 655–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Slater, M., Sadagic, A., Usoh, M., & Schroeder, R. (2000). Small group behaviour in a virtual and real environment: A comparative study. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9(1), 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Steed, A., Spante, M., Schroeder, R., Heldal, I., & Axelsson, A.-S (2003, April 27–30) Strangers and friends in caves: An exploratory study of collaboration in networked IPT systems for extended periods of time. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2003 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics (pp. 51–54). Monterey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  34. Steed, A., Roberts, D., Schroeder, R., & Heldal, I. (2005). Interaction between users of immersion projection technology systems. In Proceedings of Human Computer Interaction International 2005, 22–27 July, Las Vegas.Google Scholar
  35. Steptoe, W., Oyekoya, O., Murgia, A., Wolff, R., Rae, J., Guimaraes, E., Roberts, D., & Steed, A. (2009). Eye tracking for avatar eye gaze control during object-focused multiparty interaction in immersive collaborative virtual environments. In Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE virtual reality conference (pp. 83–90). IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  36. Wardrip-Fruin, N., & Harrigan, R. (2004). First person: New media as story, performance, and game. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  37. Weaver, A. (2010). How the Jaguar Land Rover headquarters tests new vehicles. Wired, UK. http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2010/12/start/car-design-goes-virtual. Accessed 16 Jan 2014.
  38. Williams, D., Ducheneaut, N., Li, X., Zhang, Y., Yee, N., & Nickell, E. (2006). From tree house to barracks: The social life of guilds in world of Warcraft. Games and Culture, 1, 338–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Williams, D., Yee, N., & Caplan, S. (2008). Who plays, how much, and why? A behavioral player census of virtual world. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13, 993–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wolff, R., Roberts, D. J., & Otto, O. (2004, October). Collaboration around shared objects in immersive virtual environments. In Proceedings of 8th IEEE international symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications (DS-RT’04) (pp. 206–209). Budapest: IEEE.Google Scholar
  41. Yee, N. (2006). The psychology of massively multi-user online role-playing games: Motivations, emotional investment, relationships and problematic usage. In R. Schroeder & A.-S. Axelsson (Eds.), Avatars at work and play: Collaboration and interaction in shared virtual environments (pp. 187–208). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Oxford Internet InstituteUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations