The Noetic Turn: From Language-Based to Tool-Based Knowledge Trees

Chapter
Part of the Arts, Research, Innovation and Society book series (ARIS)

Abstract

For thousands of years, knowledge was organized according to the metaphor of a tree. Therefore, we speak of trees of knowledge. These trees hide a hierarchy of knowledge, starting with the Greeks and their differentiation between technê and epistêmês and ending with Ludwig Wittgenstein “The limits of my language mean the limits of my world” (TLP, 5.6). The dominant ideology is, that language serves as the primary medium of knowledge. This essay argues that language was only the first medium to describe the world but we have developed new media, new tools to describe and to construct the world. Technology is seen as an extension of the medium of writing.

Keywords

Noetic turn Language-based knowledge tree Tool-based knowledge tree Technê Epistêmês Genealogy Media Encyclopaedia Family tree of art Rhizome 

References

  1. Austin JL (1962) How to do things with words. Harvard University press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacon F (1605) The advancement of learning [1605]. In: Vickers B (ed) Francis Bacon. A critical edition of the major works. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, pp. 120–299, here p. 189Google Scholar
  3. Barthes R (1989) Sade, fourier, loyola. University of California Press, Berkeley, p. 57Google Scholar
  4. Baudelaire C (1887) Mon Coeur mis á nu [1864], first published in 1887, in: Journaux intimes. Oeuvres complétes. Vol. 1. Ed. Y.-G. Le Dantec and Claude Pinchois, Gallimard, Paris, 1961, pp. 1271–1301Google Scholar
  5. Deleuze G, Guattari F (2004) A thousand plateaus, capitalism and schizophrenia. Continuum, London, p. 7Google Scholar
  6. Descartes R (1644) Les Principes de la philosophie. In: Selections from the principles of philosophy of Rene Descartes (1596–1650) (trans: Veitch J). http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/4391/pg4391.txt
  7. Diderot D, D’Alembert J (1751) Encyclopédie méthodique. Grammaire et littérature, 3 vols., Paris, Liège, 1782–1786, p. XIV. English edition Encyclopédie, preliminary discourse, 1: i–xlv (trans: Schwab RN, Rex WE). http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c%C2%BCdid;rgn%C2%BCmain;view%C2%BCtext;idno%C2%BCdid2222.0001.083
  8. Foucault M (1977) Nietzsche, genealogy, history. In: Bouchard DF (ed) Language, counter-memory, practice (trans: Bouchard DF, Simon S). Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp. 139–164, here p. 148Google Scholar
  9. Fuller RB (1968) Operating manual for spaceship earth, [1968]. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1969, p. 133Google Scholar
  10. Heidegger M (1953) Die Technik und die Kehre. English edition: Heidegger M (1977) The Question Concerning Technology and the Turning (trans: Lovitt W). Garland, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Kant I (1781) Critique of pure reason. Chapter I. Of the transcendental clue to the discovery of all pure conceptions of the understanding. SS 6. Section III. Of the pure conceptions of the understanding, or categories (trans: Meiklejohn JMD). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/4280/4280-h/4280-h.htm
  12. le Rond D’Alembert J (1759) Essai sur les éléments de philosophie ou Sur les principes des connaissances humaines. In: Kintzler C (ed) Fayard, Paris, 1986Google Scholar
  13. Parmenides (1892) Fragment 3 (trans: Burnet J). http://lexundria.com/parm_frag/1-19/b
  14. Popper K (1935) The logic of scientific discovery [1935]. Routledge, London, 2002, p. 18Google Scholar
  15. Reboiras FD, Varneda PV, Walter P (eds) (2002) Arbor Scientiae. Der Baum des Wissens von Ramon Lull. Akten des Internationalen Kongresses aus Anlass des 40-jährigen Jubiläums des Raimundus-Lullus-Instituts der Universität Freiburg i. Br. Brepols, TurnhoutGoogle Scholar
  16. Roggenbuck S (2005) Die Wiederkehr der Bilder. Arboreszenz und Raster in der interdisziplinären Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft. Gunter Narr Verlag, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  17. Schmidt-Burkhardt A (2005) Stammbäume der Kunst. Zur Genealogie der Avantgarde. Akademie-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. Searle JR (1969) Speech acts. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. Siegel S (2009) Tabula. Figuren der Ordnung um 1600. Akademie Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  20. Signac P (1911) D’Eugène Delacroix au néo-impressionnisme. H. Floury, Paris, p. 91fGoogle Scholar
  21. Thue A (1914) Probleme über Veränderungen von Zeichenreihen nach gegebenen Regeln [Problems concerning the transformation of symbol sequences according to given rules (trans: Power JF 2013]. In: Christiana Videnskabs-Selskabs Skrifter, I. Math.-naturv. Klasse, Oslo, no. 10Google Scholar
  22. Weigel S (2006) Genea-Logik. Generation, Tradition und Evolution zwischen Kultur- und Naturwissenschaften. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, MunichGoogle Scholar
  23. Wittgenstein L (1921) Tractatus logico-philosophicus, [1921] (trans: Pears D, McGuinness B). Routledge, 1961, p. 3Google Scholar
  24. Wittgenstein L (1953) Philosophical investigations (trans: Anscombe GEM). Blackwell, Oxford, § 23Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Applied Arts ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.ZKM | Center for Art and MediaKarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations