Skip to main content

Empirical Legitimacy as Two Connected Psychological States

Abstract

In this chapter we consider the idea that legitimacy judgments involve two connected beliefs. The first relates to consent and authorization: do people believe that an authority has the right to dictate appropriate behavior? The second relates to moral validity: do people believe that an authority exercises its power in ways that accord with prevailing norms of appropriate conduct? Marshalling data from Round 5 of the European Social Survey, we first assess the scaling properties of measures of police legitimacy using data from the UK. We then examine the utility of three different ways of representing legitimacy within in a larger model of public cooperation with the police.

Keywords

  • Police Officer
  • Procedural Justice
  • Procedural Fairness
  • Legal Authority
  • Criminal Court

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09813-5_7
  • Chapter length: 24 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-09813-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Notes

  1. 1.

    A little bit of history may be helpful. The R5 ESS module on “trust in justice” emerged out of an EU FP7-funded project entitled Euro-Justis, which ran from March 2008 to July 2011 (Hough & Sato, 2011). A key objective of Euro-Justis was to develop social indicators of public trust and institutional legitimacy. This involved careful methodological development work, in the form of cognitive interviews and a pilot survey in several countries. Parallel to the project Euro-Justis, we also made a successful bid for space in the ESS, drawing on the conceptual and methodological work of Euro-Justis (for the original proposal see http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/round5/questionnaire/ESS5_jackson_proposal.pdf). The formal process of ESS methodological development began in March 2009 (see Jackson et al., 2011), and throughout Euro-Justis and the ESS bid, a key focus was to conceptualize and operationalize empirical legitimacy as not just authorization but also normative justifiability of power. Others have since explored this distinction (e.g., Bottoms & Tankebe, 2012; Tankebe, 2013). But some key differences can be seen when it comes to operationalization. Compare Jackson et al. (2011) with Tankebe (2013), and for a commentary see Tyler and Jackson (2013).

References

  • Blader, S., & Tyler, T. R. (2009). Testing and expanding the group engagement model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 445–464.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Borsboom, D., Mellenbergh, G. J., & Van Heerden, J. (2003). The theoretical status of latent variables. Psychological Review, 110(2), 203–219.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bottoms, A., & Tankebe, J. (2012). Beyond procedural justice: A dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(1), 119–170.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bottoms, A. E., & Tankebe, J. (2013). Voice Within: Power-holders’ perspectives on authority and legitimacy. In J. Tankebe & A. Liebling (Eds.), Legitimacy and criminal justice: An international exploration (pp. 60–82). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bradford, B. (2014). Policing and social identity: Procedural justice, inclusion and cooperation between police and public. Policing and Society, 24(1), 22–43.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bradford, B., Huq, A., Jackson, J., & Roberts, B. (2014). What price fairness when security is at stake? Police legitimacy in South Africa. Regulation and Governance, 8(2), 246–268.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bradford, B., Murphy, K., & Jackson, J. (2014). Officers as mirrors: Policing, procedural justice and the (re)production of social identity. British Journal of Criminology, 54(4), 527–550.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coicaud, J.-M. (2013). Crime, justice and legitimacy: A brief theoretical inquiry. In J. Tankebe & A. Liebling (Eds.), Legitimacy and criminal justice: An international exploration (pp. 37–59). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, A., & Hucklesby, A. (Eds.). (2012). Legitimacy and compliance in criminal justice. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Cremer, D., & Tyler, T. R. (2005). Am I respected or not? Inclusion and reputation as issues in group membership. Social Justice Research, 18(2), 121–153.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dirikx, A., & Van den Bulck, J. (2014). Media use and the process-based model for police cooperation: An integrative approach toward explaining adolescents’ intentions to cooperate with the police. British Journal of Criminology, 54(2), 344–365.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Elliott, I., Thomas, S. D. M., & Ogloff, J. R. P. (2011). Procedural justice in contacts with the police: Testing a relational model of authority in a mixed methods study. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17(4), 592–610.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • European Social Survey. (2011). Trust in justice: Topline findings from the European Social Survey. Retrieved from http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/findings/ESS5_toplines_issue_1_trust_in_justice.pdf.

  • European Social Survey. (2012). Policing by consent: Understanding the dynamics of police power and legitimacy. Retrieved from http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/findings/ESS5_gb_toplines_policing_by_consent.pdf.

  • Factor, R., Mahalel, D., Rafaeli, A., & Williams, D. R. (2013). A social resistance perspective for delinquent behavior among non-dominant minority groups. British Journal of Criminology, 53(5), 784–804.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Farrall, S., Jackson, J., & Gray, E. (2009). Social order and the fear of crime in contemporary times. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gau, J. (2011). The convergent and discriminant validity of procedural justice and police legitimacy: An empirical test of core theoretical propositions. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(6), 489–498.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gau, J. M., & Brunson, R. K. (2010). Procedural justice and order maintenance policing: A study of inner city young men’s perceptions of police legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 255–279.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gray, E., Jackson, J., & Farrall, S. (2011). Feelings and functions in the fear of crime: Applying a new approach to victimisation insecurity. British Journal of Criminology, 51(1), 75–94.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hasisi, B., & Weisburd, D. (2011). Going beyond ascribed identities: The importance of procedural justice in airport security screening in Israel. Law and Society Review, 45(4), 867–892.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hellman, J. S., Jones, G., & Kaufman, D. (2003). Seize the state, seize the day: State capture, and influence in transition economies. Journal of Comparative Economics, 31(4), 751–773.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hough, M., Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Myhill, A., & Quinton, P. (2010). Procedural justice, trust and institutional legitimacy. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 4(3), 203–210.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hough, M., Jackson, J., & Bradford, B. (2013a). The drivers of police legitimacy: Some European research. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 8(2), 144–165.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hough, M., Jackson, J., & Bradford, B. (2013b). The governance of criminal justice, legitimacy and trust. In S. Body-Gendrot, R. Lévy, M. Hough, S. Snacken, & K. Kerezsi (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of European criminology (pp. 243–265). Oxon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hough, M., Jackson, J., & Bradford, B. (2013c). Legitimacy, trust and compliance: An empirical test of procedural justice theory using the European Social Survey. In J. Tankebe & A. Liebling (Eds.), Legitimacy and criminal justice: An international exploration (pp. 326–352). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hough, M., & Sato, M. (2011). Trust in justice: Why it is important for criminal policy, and how it can be measured: Project report, Euro-Justis Project. Helsinki. Retrieved from http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/4507/

  • Huq, A. Z., Tyler, T. R., & Schulhofer, S. J. (2011a). How do the purposes and targets of policing influence the basis of public cooperation with law enforcement? Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 17(3), 419–450.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Huq, A. Z., Tyler, T. R., & Schulhofer, S. J. (2011b). Mechanisms for eliciting cooperation in counterterrorism policing: A study of British Muslims. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 8(4), 728–761.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, J., & Bradford, B. (2009). Crime, policing and social order: On the expressive nature of public confidence in policing. British Journal of Sociology, 60(3), 493–521.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hough, M., Kuha, J., Stares, S. R., Widdop, S., et al. (2011). Developing European indicators of trust in justice. European Journal of Criminology, 8(4), 267–285.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hough, M., Myhill, A., Quinton, P., & Tyler, T. R. (2012). Why do people comply with the law? Legitimacy and the influence of legal institutions. British Journal of Criminology, 52(6), 1051–1071.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Stanko, E. A., & Hohl, K. (2012). Just authority? Trust in the police in England and Wales. Oxon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, J., Huq, A., Bradford, B., & Tyler, T. R. (2013). Monopolizing force? Police legitimacy and public attitudes towards the acceptability of violence. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19(4), 479–497.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, J., & Kuha, J. (2014). Worry about crime in a cross-national context: A model-supported method of measurement Using the European Social Survey. Survey Research Methods, 8(2), 109–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, J., Kuha, J., Hough, M., Bradford, B., Hohl, K., & Gerber, M. M. (2013). Trust and legitimacy across Europe: A FIDUCIA report on comparative public attitudes towards legal authority. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2272975.

  • Jonathan-Zamir, T., & Harpaz, A. (2014). Police understanding of the foundations of their legitimacy in the eyes of the public: The case of commanding officers in the Israel National Police. British Journal of Criminology, 54(3), 469–489.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jonathan-Zamir, T., & Weisburd, D. (2013). The effects of security threats on antecedents of police legitimacy: Findings from a quasi-experiment in Israel. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(1), 3–32.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kane, R. J. (2005). Compromised police legitimacy as a predictor of violent crime in structurally disadvantaged communities. Criminology, 43(2), 469–498.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karstedt, S., & Farrall, S. (2006). The moral economy of everyday crime: Markets, consumers and citizens. British Journal of Criminology, 46(6), 1011–1103.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kelman, H. C. (2006). Interests, relationships, identities: Three central issues for individuals and groups in negotiating their social environment. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 1–26.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kirk, D. S., & Matsuda, M. (2011). Legal cynicism, collective efficacy, and the ecology of arrest. Criminology, 49(2), 443–472.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kochel, T., Parks, R., & Mastrofski, S. (2013). Examining police effectiveness as a precursor to legitimacy and cooperation with police. Justice Quarterly, 30(5), 895–925.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lind, E., & Tyler, T. (1988). The social psychology of procedural justice. New York: Plenum Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Loader, I., & Mulcahy, A. (2003). Policing and the condition of England. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maguire, E. R., & Johnson, D. (2010). Measuring public perceptions of the police. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 33(4), 703–730.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Antrobus, E., & Tyler, T. R. (2013). Shaping citizen perceptions of police legitimacy: A randomized field trial of procedural justice. Criminology, 51(1), 33–63.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mulford, M., Jackson, J., & Svedsater, H. (2008). Encouraging cooperation: Revisiting group identity and cooperative norm effects in prisoners’ dilemma games. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(12), 2964–2989.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Murphy, K., & Cherney, A. (2012). Understanding cooperation with police in a diverse society. British Journal of Criminology, 52(1), 181–201.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Murphy, K., Tyler, T. R., & Curtis, A. (2009). Nurturing regulatory compliance: Is procedural justice effective when people question the legitimacy of the law? Regulation and Governance, 3(1), 1–26.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Papachristos, A., Meares, T., & Fagan, J. (2012). Why do criminals obey the law? The influence of legitimacy and social networks on active gun offenders. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(2), 397–439.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reiner, R. (2010). The politics of the police (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reisig, M. D., Bratton, J., & Gertz, M. G. (2007). The construct validity and refinement of process-based policing measures. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 34(8), 1005–1027.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sargeant, E., Murphy, T., & Cherney, A. (2014). Ethnicity, trust and cooperation with police: Testing the dominance of the process-based model. European Journal of Criminology, 11(4), 500–524.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sunshine, J., & Tyler, T. R. (2003). The role of procedural justice and legitimacy in public support for policing. Law and Society Review, 37(3), 513–548.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behavior. In S. Worchel & L. W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 276–293). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tankebe, J. (2009). Public cooperation with the police in Ghana: Does procedural fairness matter? Criminology, 47(4), 1265–1293.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tankebe, J. (2013). Viewing things differently: The dimensions of public perceptions of legitimacy. Criminology, 51(1), 103–135.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tankebe, J., & Liebling, A. (Eds.). (2013). Legitimacy and criminal justice: An international exploration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, V. (1974). Dramas, fields, and metaphors: Symbolic action in human society. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, J. C., Brown, R. J., & Tajfel, H. (1979). Social comparison and group interest in ingroup favoritism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 9(2), 187–204.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R. (1997). The psychology of legitimacy. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1(4), 323–344.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R. (2003). Procedural justice, legitimacy, and the effective rule of law. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 30, pp. 431–505). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R. (2006a). Legitimacy and legitimation. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 375–400.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R. (2006b). Why people obey the law. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R. (Ed.). (2007). Legitimacy and criminal justice: International perspectives. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R. (2011a). Trust and legitimacy: Policing in the US and Europe. European Journal of Criminology, 8(4), 254–266.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R. (2011b). Why people cooperate: The role of social motivations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R., & Blader, S. L. (2003). The group engagement model: Procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7(4), 349–361.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R., & Huo, Y. J. (2002). Trust in the law: Encouraging public cooperation with the police and courts. New York: Russell-Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R., & Jackson, J. (2013). Future challenges in the study of legitimacy and criminal justice. In J. Tankebe & A. Liebling (Eds.), Legitimacy and criminal justice: An international exploration (pp. 83–104). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R., & Jackson, J. (2014). Popular legitimacy and the exercise of legal authority: Motivating compliance, cooperation and engagement. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 20(1), 78–95.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R., & Lind, E. A. (1992). A relational model of authority in groups. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 115–191.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R., Schulhofer, S. J., & Huq, A. Z. (2010). Legitimacy and deterrence effects in counter-terrorism policing: A study of Muslim Americans. Law and Society Review, 44(2), 365–401.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T. R., & Wakslak, C. J. (2004). Profiling and police legitimacy: Procedural justice, attributions of motive, and acceptance of police authority. Criminology, 42(2), 253–281.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Waddington, P. (1999). Policing citizens: Authority and rights. London: University College Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jonathan Jackson .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Jackson, J., Hough, M., Bradford, B., Kuha, J. (2015). Empirical Legitimacy as Two Connected Psychological States. In: Meško, G., Tankebe, J. (eds) Trust and Legitimacy in Criminal Justice. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09813-5_7

Download citation