Fabrication and Characterization of Polymer and Composite Scaffolds Using Freeze-Drying Technique

Part of the SpringerBriefs in Materials book series (BRIEFSMATERIALS)


This chapter reports the emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique for the formation of three dimensional scaffolds. Composite scaffolds based on biodegradable natural polymer and osteoconductive hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles can be promising for a variety of tissue engineering (TE) applications. This study addressed the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) porous composite scaffolds composed of HA and chitosan fabricated via thermally induced phase separation and freeze-drying technique. The scaffolds produced were subsequently characterized in terms of microstructure, porosity, mechanical property. In vitro degradation and in vitro biological evaluation were also investigated. The scaffolds were highly porous and had interconnected pore structures. The pore sizes ranged from several microns to a few hundred microns. The incorporated HA nanoparticles were well mixed and physically co-existed with chitosan in composite scaffold structures. The addition of 10 % (w/w) HA nanoparticles into chitosan enhanced the compressive mechanical properties of composite scaffold compared to pure chitosan scaffold. In vitro degradation results in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) showed slower uptake properties of composite scaffolds. Moreover, the scaffolds showed positive response to mouse fibroblast L929 cells attachment. Overall, the findings suggest that HA/chitosan composite scaffolds could be suitable for TE applications.


Composite Scaffolds Chitosan Hydroxyapatite 



The authors would like to thank Univesiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for the facilities and support. Authors also acknowledge FRGS Vote: 4F126, GUP (Tier 1) 03H13, Ministry of Higher education (MOHE), RMC and UTM for financial support.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Johor BahruMalaysia

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