Advertisement

The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

  • Kevin WarwickEmail author
Chapter
  • 2.6k Downloads
Part of the Topics in Intelligent Engineering and Informatics book series (TIEI, volume 9)

Abstract

In this article a look is taken at three areas in which the divide between humans and machines is rapidly diminishing. A look is taken firstly at culturing biological neurons and embodying them within a robot body, secondly the use of implants to link a human nervous system with the Internet and thirdly recent results from the Turing Imitation Game which concentrates on differences in human communication. In each case the technical background is described, practical results are discussed and finally implications and future directions are considered.

Keywords

cyborgs implant technology bio-tech hybrids human enhancement Turing test 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chiappalone, M., Vato, A., Berdondini, L., Koudelka-Hep, M., Martinoia, S.: Network dynamics and synchronous activity in cultured cortical neurons. Int. J. Neural Syst. 17(2), 87–103 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    De Marse, T.B., Wagenaar, D.A., Blau, A.W., Potter, S.M.: The neurally controlled animat: Biological brains acting with simulated bodies. Autonomous Robots 11, 305–310 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warwick, K., Nasuto, S.J., Becerra, V.M., Whalley, B.J.: Experiments with an in-vitro robot brain. In: Cai, Y. (ed.) Computing with Instinct 2010. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5897, pp. 1–15. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warwick, K., Xydas, D., Nasuto, S.J., Becerra, V.M., Hammond, M.W., Downes, J., Marshall, S., Whalley, B.J.: Controlling a mobile robot with a biological brain. Defence Science Journal 60(1), 5–14 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Xydas, D., Norcott, D.J., Warwick, K., Whalley, B.J., Nasuto, S.J., Becerra, V.M., Hammond, M.W., Downes, J., Marshall, S.: Architecture for neuronal cell control of a mobile robot. In: European Robotics Symposium, EUROS 2008, pp. 23–31 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Warwick, K.: Implications and consequences of robots with biological brains. Ethics and Information Technology 12(3), 223–234 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Donoghue, J.P., Nurmikko, A., Friehs, G., Black, M.: Development of neuromotor prostheses for humans. Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology 57, 592–606 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hochberg, L.R., Serruya, M.D., Friehs, G.M., Mukand, J.A., Saleh, M., Caplan, A.H., Branner, A., Chen, D., Penn, R.D., Donoghue, J.P.: Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia. Nature 442(7099), 164–171 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Warwick, K., Gasson, M.N., Hutt, B., Goodhew, I., Kyberd, P., Andrews, B., Teddy, P., Shad, A.: The application of implant technology for cybernetic systems. Archives of Neurology 60(10), 1369–1373 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gasson, M.N., Hutt, B.D., Goodhew, I., Kyberd, P., Warwick, K.: Invasive neural prosthesis for neural signal detection and nerve stimulation. International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing 19(5), 365–375 (2005)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Warwick, K., Gasson, M.: Practical interface experiments with implant technology. In: Sebe, N., Lew, M., Huang, T.S. (eds.) ECCV/HCI 2004. LNCS, vol. 3058, pp. 7–16. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Warwick, K., Gasson, M.N., Hutt, B., Goodhew, I., Kyberd, P., Schulzrinne, H., Wu, X.: Thought communication and control: A first step using radiotelegraphy. IEE Proceedings - Communications 151(3), 185–189 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Turing, A.M.: Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind LIX(236), 433–460 (1950)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Copeland, B.J.: The Essential Turing: The Ideas that Gave Birth to the Computer Age. Oxford University Press (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shah, H., Warwick, K.: Testing Turing’s five minutes, parallel-paired imitation game. Kybernetes 39(3), 449–465 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Warwick, K.: Not another look at the Turing test? In: Bieliková, M., Friedrich, G., Gottlob, G., Katzenbeisser, S., Turán, G. (eds.) SOFSEM 2012. LNCS, vol. 7147, pp. 130–140. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shah, H., Warwick, K.: Hidden interlocutor misidentification in practical Turing tests. Minds and Machines 20(3), 441–454 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Warwick, K., Shah, H., Moor, J.: Some implications of a sample of practical Turing tests. Minds and Machines, 1–15 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Systems EngineeringUniversity of ReadingReadingUK

Personalised recommendations