Developing Language Learning Strategies in a Personal Learning Environment: Pilot Study

  • Katrin Saks
  • Äli Leijen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8613)

Abstract

English is indisputably the lingua franca of today’s globalizing world. Despite Estonians’ high proficiency in English, methods used in the teaching process have not supported the active use of language and have probably hindered communication. Advanced language learning strategies (LLS) have been found to be connected with higher language proficiency. The aim of the current study is to develop assignments within personal learning environments (PLE) for an English course promoting advanced LLS. The developed assignments were carried out by 28 first-year students studying Tourism English. Data was collected through pre- and post-testing. Additional data about the students’ learning experiences was collected with focus group interviews. The results of the study showed a significant improvement in compensation and social strategies. A significant relationship was found between compensation strategies and content knowledge. Further research should focus on reinforcing the assignments, especially regarding advancing the cognitive and metacognitive strategies.

Keywords

language learning strategies personal learning environment language proficiency 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bandura, A.: Social Foundations of Thought and Action: a Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1986)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chamot, A.U.: The Role of Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. In: Breen, M.P. (ed.) Learner Contributions to Language Learning. New Directions in Research, Pearson Education Ltd. (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    EF English Proficiency Index. EF Education First Ltd., http://www.ef.com/epi/downloads/
  4. 4.
    Ehrman, M., Oxford, R.: Cognition Plus: Correlates of Language Learning Success. Modern Language Journal 79(1), 67–89 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Green, J.M., Oxford, R.: A Closer Look at Learning Strategies, L2 Proficiency and Sex. TESOL Quarterly 29(2), 261–297 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hsiao, T., Oxford, R.: Comparing Theories of Language Learning Strategies: a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Modern Language Journal 86(3), 368–383 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kondo, M., Ishikawa, Y., Smith, C., Sakamoto, K., Shimomura, H., Wada, N.: Mobile Assisted Language Learning in University EFL Courses in Japan: Developing Attitudes and Skills for Self-Regulated Learning. ReCALL 24, 169–187 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kop, R.: Moving towards a Personal Learning Environment (2012), http://nrc-ca.academia.edu/RKop/Papers/684316/Moving_towards_a_Personal_Learning_Environment
  9. 9.
    Kori, K., Pedaste, M., Leijen, Ä., Mäeots, M.: Supporting Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning. Educational Research Review 11, 45–55 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leijen, Ä., Admiraal, W., Wildschut, L., Simons, P.R.J.: Students’ Perspectives on E-Learning and the Use of a Virtual Learning Environment in Dance Education. Research in Dance Education 9(2), 147–162 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leijen, Ä., Valtna, K., Leijen, D.A., Pedaste, M.: How to Determine the Quality of Students’ Reflections? Studies in Higher Education 37(2), 203–217 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lockhorst, D.: Design Principles for a CSCL Environment in Teacher Training. Doctoral dissertation, IVLOS Institute of Education of Utrecht University (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Magno, C.: Korean Students’ Language Learning Strategies and Years of Studying English as Predictors of Proficiency in English. TESOL Journal 2, 39–61 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Michalsky, T.: Shaping Self-Regulation in Science Teachers’ Professional Growth: Inquiry Skills. Science Education 96(6), 1106–1133 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    O’Malley, J.M., Chamot, A.U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kupper, L., Russo, R.P.: Learning Strategies Used by Beginning and Intermediate ESL Students. Language Learning 35(1), 21–46 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    O’Malley, J.M., Chamot, A.U.: Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oxford, R.L.: Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Newbury House/Harper and Row, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Põldoja, H.: EduFeedr: Redesigning the Feed Reader for an Open Education. In: Proceedings of the Open 2009 Symposium, Finland (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Riigieksamite statistika 2012 (Statistics of State Exams 2012), http://www.innove.ee/UserFiles/Riigieksamid/2012/Riigieksamid%202012%20%C3%BCldstatistika.pdf
  20. 20.
    Rubin, J.: What the “Good Language Learner” Can Teach Us. TESOL Quarterly 9, 41–51 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ryan, G.W., Bernard, H.R.: Techniques to Identify Themes. Field Methods 15(1), 85–109 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saks, K., Leijen, Ä.: Distinguishing Self-Directed and Self-Regulated Learning and Measuring Them in the E-Learning Context. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences 112, 190–198 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stern, H.H.: What Can We Learn from the Good Language Learner? Canadian Modern Language Review 31, 304–318 (1975)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ullrich, C., Shen, R., Gillet, D.: Not Yet Ready for Everyone: An Experience Report about a Personal Learning Environment for Language Learning. In: Luo, X., Spaniol, M., Wang, L., Li, Q., Nejdl, W., Zhang, W. (eds.) ICWL 2010. LNCS, vol. 6483, pp. 269–278. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Väljataga, T., Fieldler, S.: Supporting Students to Self-Direct Intentional Learning Projects with Social Media. Educational Technology and Society 12(3), 58–69 (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zimmerman, B.J.: Attaining Self-Regulation: a Social Cognitive Perspective. In: Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., Zeidner, M. (eds.) Handbook of Self-Regulation, pp. 13–39. Academic Press, San Diego (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katrin Saks
    • 1
  • Äli Leijen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TartuTartuEstonia

Personalised recommendations